DOM

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Abstract

DOM defines a platform-neutral model for events, aborting activities, and node trees.

Goals

This specification standardizes the DOM. It does so as follows:

  1. By consolidating DOM Level 3 Core [DOM-Level-3-Core], Element Traversal [ELEMENTTRAVERSAL], Selectors API Level 2 [SELECTORS-API2], the "DOM Event Architecture" and "Basic Event Interfaces" chapters of DOM Level 3 Events [uievents-20031107] (specific types of events do not belong in the DOM Standard), and DOM Level 2 Traversal and Range [DOM-Level-2-Traversal-Range], and:

    • Aligning them with the JavaScript ecosystem where possible.
    • Aligning them with existing implementations.
    • Simplifying them as much as possible.
  2. By moving features from the HTML Standard [HTML] that make more sense to be specified as part of the DOM Standard.

  3. By defining a replacement for the "Mutation Events" and "Mutation Name Event Types" chapters of DOM Level 3 Events [uievents-20031107] as the old model was problematic.

    The old model is expected to be removed from implementations in due course.

  4. By defining new features that simplify common DOM operations.

1. Infrastructure

This specification depends on the Infra Standard. [INFRA]

Some of the terms used in this specification are defined in Encoding, Selectors, Web IDL, XML, and Namespaces in XML. [ENCODING] [SELECTORS4] [WEBIDL] [XML] [XML-NAMES]

The term context object is an alias for this.

Usage of context object is deprecated in favor of this.

When extensions are needed, the DOM Standard can be updated accordingly, or a new standard can be written that hooks into the provided extensibility hooks for applicable specifications.

1.1. Trees

A tree is a finite hierarchical tree structure. In tree order is preorder, depth-first traversal of a tree.

An object that participates in a tree has a parent, which is either null or an object, and has children, which is an ordered set of objects. An object A whose parent is object B is a child of B.

The root of an object is itself, if its parent is null, or else it is the root of its parent. The root of a tree is any object participating in that tree whose parent is null.

An object A is called a descendant of an object B, if either A is a child of B or A is a child of an object C that is a descendant of B.

An inclusive descendant is an object or one of its descendants.

An object A is called an ancestor of an object B if and only if B is a descendant of A.

An inclusive ancestor is an object or one of its ancestors.

An object A is called a sibling of an object B, if and only if B and A share the same non-null parent.

An inclusive sibling is an object or one of its siblings.

An object A is preceding an object B if A and B are in the same tree and A comes before B in tree order.

An object A is following an object B if A and B are in the same tree and A comes after B in tree order.

The first child of an object is its first child or null if it has no children.

The last child of an object is its last child or null if it has no children.

The previous sibling of an object is its first preceding sibling or null if it has no preceding sibling.

The next sibling of an object is its first following sibling or null if it has no following sibling.

The index of an object is its number of preceding siblings, or 0 if it has none.

1.2. Ordered sets

The ordered set parser takes a string input and then runs these steps:

  1. Let inputTokens be the result of splitting input on ASCII whitespace.

  2. Let tokens be a new ordered set.

  3. For each token in inputTokens, append token to tokens.

  4. Return tokens.

The ordered set serializer takes a set and returns the concatenation of set using U+0020 SPACE.

1.3. Selectors

To scope-match a selectors string selectors against a node, run these steps:

  1. Let s be the result of parse a selector selectors. [SELECTORS4]

  2. If s is failure, then throw a "SyntaxError" DOMException.

  3. Return the result of match a selector against a tree with s and node’s root using scoping root node. [SELECTORS4].

Support for namespaces within selectors is not planned and will not be added.

1.4. Namespaces

To validate a qualifiedName, throw an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException if qualifiedName does not match the Name or QName production.

To validate and extract a namespace and qualifiedName, run these steps:

  1. If namespace is the empty string, set it to null.
  2. Validate qualifiedName.
  3. Let prefix be null.
  4. Let localName be qualifiedName.
  5. If qualifiedName contains a ":" (U+003E), then split the string on it and set prefix to the part before and localName to the part after.
  6. If prefix is non-null and namespace is null, then throw a "NamespaceError" DOMException.
  7. If prefix is "xml" and namespace is not the XML namespace, then throw a "NamespaceError" DOMException.
  8. If either qualifiedName or prefix is "xmlns" and namespace is not the XMLNS namespace, then throw a "NamespaceError" DOMException.
  9. If namespace is the XMLNS namespace and neither qualifiedName nor prefix is "xmlns", then throw a "NamespaceError" DOMException.
  10. Return namespace, prefix, and localName.

2. Events

2.1. Introduction to "DOM Events"

Throughout the web platform events are dispatched to objects to signal an occurrence, such as network activity or user interaction. These objects implement the EventTarget interface and can therefore add event listeners to observe events by calling addEventListener():

obj.addEventListener("load", imgFetched)

function imgFetched(ev) {
  // great success}

Event listeners can be removed by utilizing the removeEventListener() method, passing the same arguments.

Events are objects too and implement the Event interface (or a derived interface). In the example above ev is the event. ev is passed as an argument to the event listener’s callback (typically a JavaScript Function as shown above). Event listeners key off the event’s type attribute value ("load" in the above example). The event’s target attribute value returns the object to which the event was dispatched (obj above).

Although events are typically dispatched by the user agent as the result of user interaction or the completion of some task, applications can dispatch events themselves by using what are commonly known as synthetic events:

// add an appropriate event listener
obj.addEventListener("cat", function(e) { process(e.detail) })

// create and dispatch the event
var event = new CustomEvent("cat", {"detail":{"hazcheeseburger":true}})
obj.dispatchEvent(event)

Apart from signaling, events are sometimes also used to let an application control what happens next in an operation. For instance as part of form submission an event whose type attribute value is "submit" is dispatched. If this event’s preventDefault() method is invoked, form submission will be terminated. Applications who wish to make use of this functionality through events dispatched by the application (synthetic events) can make use of the return value of the dispatchEvent() method:

if(obj.dispatchEvent(event)) {
  // event was not canceled, time for some magic}

When an event is dispatched to an object that participates in a tree (e.g., an element), it can reach event listeners on that object’s ancestors too. Effectively, all the object’s inclusive ancestor event listeners whose capture is true are invoked, in tree order. And then, if event’s bubbles is true, all the object’s inclusive ancestor event listeners whose capture is false are invoked, now in reverse tree order.

Let’s look at an example of how events work in a tree:

<!doctype html>
<html>
 <head>
  <title>Boring example</title>
 </head>
 <body>
  <p>Hello <span id=x>world</span>!</p>
  <script>
   function test(e) {
     debug(e.target, e.currentTarget, e.eventPhase)
   }
   document.addEventListener("hey", test, {capture: true})
   document.body.addEventListener("hey", test)
   var ev = new Event("hey", {bubbles:true})
   document.getElementById("x").dispatchEvent(ev)
  </script>
 </body>
</html>

The debug function will be invoked twice. Each time the event’s target attribute value will be the span element. The first time currentTarget attribute’s value will be the document, the second time the body element. eventPhase attribute’s value switches from CAPTURING_PHASE to BUBBLING_PHASE. If an event listener was registered for the span element, eventPhase attribute’s value would have been AT_TARGET.

2.2. Interface Event

Event

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Event/Event

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[Exposed=(Window,Worker,AudioWorklet)]
interface Event {
  constructor(DOMString type, optional EventInit eventInitDict = {});

  readonly attribute DOMString type;
  readonly attribute EventTarget? target;
  readonly attribute EventTarget? srcElement; // historical
  readonly attribute EventTarget? currentTarget;
  sequence<EventTarget> composedPath();

  const unsigned short NONE = 0;
  const unsigned short CAPTURING_PHASE = 1;
  const unsigned short AT_TARGET = 2;
  const unsigned short BUBBLING_PHASE = 3;
  readonly attribute unsigned short eventPhase;

  undefined stopPropagation();
           attribute boolean cancelBubble; // historical alias of .stopPropagation
  undefined stopImmediatePropagation();

  readonly attribute boolean bubbles;
  readonly attribute boolean cancelable;
           attribute boolean returnValue;  // historical
  undefined preventDefault();
  readonly attribute boolean defaultPrevented;
  readonly attribute boolean composed;

  [LegacyUnforgeable] readonly attribute boolean isTrusted;
  readonly attribute DOMHighResTimeStamp timeStamp;

  undefined initEvent(DOMString type, optional boolean bubbles = false, optional boolean cancelable = false); // historical
};

dictionary EventInit {
  boolean bubbles = false;
  boolean cancelable = false;
  boolean composed = false;
};

An Event object is simply named an event. It allows for signaling that something has occurred, e.g., that an image has completed downloading.

A potential event target is null or an EventTarget object.

An event has an associated target (a potential event target). Unless stated otherwise it is null.

An event has an associated relatedTarget (a potential event target). Unless stated otherwise it is null.

Other specifications use relatedTarget to define a relatedTarget attribute. [UIEVENTS]

An event has an associated touch target list (a list of zero or more potential event targets). Unless stated otherwise it is the empty list.

The touch target list is for the exclusive use of defining the TouchEvent interface and related interfaces. [TOUCH-EVENTS]

An event has an associated path. A path is a list of structs. Each struct consists of an invocation target (an EventTarget object), an invocation-target-in-shadow-tree (a boolean), a shadow-adjusted target (a potential event target), a relatedTarget (a potential event target), a touch target list (a list of potential event targets), a root-of-closed-tree (a boolean), and a slot-in-closed-tree (a boolean). A path is initially the empty list.

event = new Event(type [, eventInitDict])
Returns a new event whose type attribute value is set to type. The eventInitDict argument allows for setting the bubbles and cancelable attributes via object members of the same name.
event . type
Returns the type of event, e.g. "click", "hashchange", or "submit".
event . target
Returns the object to which event is dispatched (its target).
event . currentTarget
Returns the object whose event listener’s callback is currently being invoked.
event . composedPath()
Returns the invocation target objects of event’s path (objects on which listeners will be invoked), except for any nodes in shadow trees of which the shadow root’s mode is "closed" that are not reachable from event’s currentTarget.
event . eventPhase
Returns the event’s phase, which is one of NONE, CAPTURING_PHASE, AT_TARGET, and BUBBLING_PHASE.
event . stopPropagation()
When dispatched in a tree, invoking this method prevents event from reaching any objects other than the current object.
event . stopImmediatePropagation()
Invoking this method prevents event from reaching any registered event listeners after the current one finishes running and, when dispatched in a tree, also prevents event from reaching any other objects.
event . bubbles
Returns true or false depending on how event was initialized. True if event goes through its target’s ancestors in reverse tree order, and false otherwise.
event . cancelable
Returns true or false depending on how event was initialized. Its return value does not always carry meaning, but true can indicate that part of the operation during which event was dispatched, can be canceled by invoking the preventDefault() method.
event . preventDefault()
If invoked when the cancelable attribute value is true, and while executing a listener for the event with passive set to false, signals to the operation that caused event to be dispatched that it needs to be canceled.
event . defaultPrevented
Returns true if preventDefault() was invoked successfully to indicate cancelation, and false otherwise.
event . composed
Returns true or false depending on how event was initialized. True if event invokes listeners past a ShadowRoot node that is the root of its target, and false otherwise.
event . isTrusted
Returns true if event was dispatched by the user agent, and false otherwise.
event . timeStamp
Returns the event’s timestamp as the number of milliseconds measured relative to the time origin.

Event/type

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The type attribute must return the value it was initialized to. When an event is created the attribute must be initialized to the empty string.

Event/target

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The target attribute’s getter, when invoked, must return this’s target.

The srcElement attribute’s getter, when invoked, must return this’s target.

Event/currentTarget

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The currentTarget attribute must return the value it was initialized to. When an event is created the attribute must be initialized to null.

Event/composedPath

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The composedPath() method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let composedPath be an empty list.

  2. Let path be this’s path.

  3. If path is empty, then return composedPath.

  4. Let currentTarget be this’s currentTarget attribute value.

  5. Append currentTarget to composedPath.

  6. Let currentTargetIndex be 0.

  7. Let currentTargetHiddenSubtreeLevel be 0.

  8. Let index be path’s size − 1.

  9. While index is greater than or equal to 0:

    1. If path[index]'s root-of-closed-tree is true, then increase currentTargetHiddenSubtreeLevel by 1.

    2. If path[index]'s invocation target is currentTarget, then set currentTargetIndex to index and break.

    3. If path[index]'s slot-in-closed-tree is true, then decrease currentTargetHiddenSubtreeLevel by 1.

    4. Decrease index by 1.

  10. Let currentHiddenLevel and maxHiddenLevel be currentTargetHiddenSubtreeLevel.

  11. Set index to currentTargetIndex − 1.

  12. While index is greater than or equal to 0:

    1. If path[index]'s root-of-closed-tree is true, then increase currentHiddenLevel by 1.

    2. If currentHiddenLevel is less than or equal to maxHiddenLevel, then prepend path[index]'s invocation target to composedPath.

    3. If path[index]'s slot-in-closed-tree is true, then:

      1. Decrease currentHiddenLevel by 1.

      2. If currentHiddenLevel is less than maxHiddenLevel, then set maxHiddenLevel to currentHiddenLevel.

    4. Decrease index by 1.

  13. Set currentHiddenLevel and maxHiddenLevel to currentTargetHiddenSubtreeLevel.

  14. Set index to currentTargetIndex + 1.

  15. While index is less than path’s size:

    1. If path[index]'s slot-in-closed-tree is true, then increase currentHiddenLevel by 1.

    2. If currentHiddenLevel is less than or equal to maxHiddenLevel, then append path[index]'s invocation target to composedPath.

    3. If path[index]'s root-of-closed-tree is true, then:

      1. Decrease currentHiddenLevel by 1.

      2. If currentHiddenLevel is less than maxHiddenLevel, then set maxHiddenLevel to currentHiddenLevel.

    4. Increase index by 1.

  16. Return composedPath.

Event/eventPhase

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome45+
Opera32+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for Android45+Android WebView45+Samsung Internet5.0+Opera Mobile32+

The eventPhase attribute must return the value it was initialized to, which must be one of the following:

NONE (numeric value 0)
Events not currently dispatched are in this phase.
CAPTURING_PHASE (numeric value 1)
When an event is dispatched to an object that participates in a tree it will be in this phase before it reaches its target.
AT_TARGET (numeric value 2)
When an event is dispatched it will be in this phase on its target.
BUBBLING_PHASE (numeric value 3)
When an event is dispatched to an object that participates in a tree it will be in this phase after it reaches its target.

Initially the attribute must be initialized to NONE.


Each event has the following associated flags that are all initially unset:

Event/stopPropagation

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The stopPropagation() method, when invoked, must set this’s stop propagation flag.

Event/cancelBubble

In all current engines.

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OperaYesEdgeYes
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Firefox for Android53+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The cancelBubble attribute’s getter, when invoked, must return true if this’s stop propagation flag is set, and false otherwise.

The cancelBubble attribute’s setter, when invoked, must set this’s stop propagation flag if the given value is true, and do nothing otherwise.

Event/stopImmediatePropagation

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The stopImmediatePropagation() method, when invoked, must set this’s stop propagation flag and this’s stop immediate propagation flag.

Event/bubbles

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

Event/cancelable

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OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The bubbles and cancelable attributes must return the values they were initialized to.

To set the canceled flag, given an event event, if event’s cancelable attribute value is true and event’s in passive listener flag is unset, then set event’s canceled flag, and do nothing otherwise.

The returnValue attribute’s getter, when invoked, must return false if this’s canceled flag is set, and true otherwise.

The returnValue attribute’s setter, when invoked, must set the canceled flag with this if the given value is false, and do nothing otherwise.

Event/preventDefault

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The preventDefault() method, when invoked, must set the canceled flag with this.

There are scenarios where invoking preventDefault() has no effect. User agents are encouraged to log the precise cause in a developer console, to aid debugging.

Event/defaultPrevented

In all current engines.

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The defaultPrevented attribute’s getter, when invoked, must return true if this’s canceled flag is set, and false otherwise.

Event/composed

In all current engines.

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The composed attribute’s getter, when invoked, must return true if this’s composed flag is set, and false otherwise.


Event/isTrusted

In all current engines.

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Firefox for AndroidYesiOS Safari10+Chrome for Android46+Android WebView46+Samsung Internet5.0+Opera Mobile33+

The isTrusted attribute must return the value it was initialized to. When an event is created the attribute must be initialized to false.

isTrusted is a convenience that indicates whether an event is dispatched by the user agent (as opposed to using dispatchEvent()). The sole legacy exception is click(), which causes the user agent to dispatch an event whose isTrusted attribute is initialized to false.

Event/timeStamp

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome49+
Opera36+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IEYes
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for Android49+Android WebView49+Samsung Internet5.0+Opera Mobile36+

The timeStamp attribute must return the value it was initialized to.


To initialize an event, with type, bubbles, and cancelable, run these steps:

  1. Set event’s initialized flag.

  2. Unset event’s stop propagation flag, stop immediate propagation flag, and canceled flag.

  3. Set event’s isTrusted attribute to false.

  4. Set event’s target to null.

  5. Set event’s type attribute to type.

  6. Set event’s bubbles attribute to bubbles.

  7. Set event’s cancelable attribute to cancelable.

The initEvent(type, bubbles, cancelable) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If this’s dispatch flag is set, then return.

  2. Initialize this with type, bubbles, and cancelable.

As events have constructors initEvent() is redundant and incapable of setting composed. It has to be supported for legacy content.

2.3. Legacy extensions to the Window interface

partial interface Window {
  [Replaceable] readonly attribute any event; // historical
};

Each Window object has an associated current event (undefined or an Event object). Unless stated otherwise it is undefined.

Window/event

In all current engines.

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Firefox for Android🔰 63+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The event attribute’s getter, when invoked, must return this’s current event.

Web developers are strongly encouraged to instead rely on the Event object passed to event listeners, as that will result in more portable code. This attribute is not available in workers or worklets, and is inaccurate for events dispatched in shadow trees.

2.4. Interface CustomEvent

CustomEvent

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CustomEvent/CustomEvent

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[Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface CustomEvent : Event {
  constructor(DOMString type, optional CustomEventInit eventInitDict = {});

  readonly attribute any detail;

  undefined initCustomEvent(DOMString type, optional boolean bubbles = false, optional boolean cancelable = false, optional any detail = null); // historical
};

dictionary CustomEventInit : EventInit {
  any detail = null;
};

Events using the CustomEvent interface can be used to carry custom data.

event = new CustomEvent(type [, eventInitDict])
Works analogously to the constructor for Event except that the eventInitDict argument now allows for setting the detail attribute too.
event . detail
Returns any custom data event was created with. Typically used for synthetic events.

CustomEvent/detail

In all current engines.

Firefox11+Safari6.1+Chrome15+
Opera11.6+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)14+IENone
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari6.1+Chrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The detail attribute must return the value it was initialized to.

The initCustomEvent(type, bubbles, cancelable, detail) method must, when invoked, run these steps:

  1. If this’s dispatch flag is set, then return.

  2. Initialize this with type, bubbles, and cancelable.

  3. Set this’s detail attribute to detail.

2.5. Constructing events

Specifications may define event constructing steps for all or some events. The algorithm is passed an event as indicated in the inner event creation steps.

This construct can be used by Event subclasses that have a more complex structure than a simple 1:1 mapping between their initializing dictionary members and IDL attributes.

When a constructor of the Event interface, or of an interface that inherits from the Event interface, is invoked, these steps must be run, given the arguments type and eventInitDict:

  1. Let event be the result of running the inner event creation steps with this interface, null, now, and eventInitDict.

  2. Initialize event’s type attribute to type.

  3. Return event.

To create an event using eventInterface, which must be either Event or an interface that inherits from it, and optionally given a Realm realm, run these steps:

  1. If realm is not given, then set it to null.

  2. Let dictionary be the result of converting the JavaScript value undefined to the dictionary type accepted by eventInterface’s constructor. (This dictionary type will either be EventInit or a dictionary that inherits from it.)

    This does not work if members are required; see whatwg/dom#600.

  3. Let event be the result of running the inner event creation steps with eventInterface, realm, the time of the occurrence that the event is signaling, and dictionary.

    In macOS the time of the occurrence for input actions is available via the timestamp property of NSEvent objects.

  4. Initialize event’s isTrusted attribute to true.

  5. Return event.

Create an event is meant to be used by other specifications which need to separately create and dispatch events, instead of simply firing them. It ensures the event’s attributes are initialized to the correct defaults.

The inner event creation steps, given an interface, realm, time, and dictionary, are as follows:

  1. Let event be the result of creating a new object using eventInterface. If realm is non-null, then use that Realm; otherwise, use the default behavior defined in Web IDL.

    As of the time of this writing Web IDL does not yet define any default behavior; see heycam/webidl#135.

  2. Set event’s initialized flag.

  3. Initialize event’s timeStamp attribute to a DOMHighResTimeStamp representing the high resolution time from the time origin to time.

    User agents should set a minimum resolution of event’s timeStamp attribute to 5 microseconds following the existing clock resolution recommendation. [HR-TIME]

  4. For each membervalue in dictionary, if event has an attribute whose identifier is member, then initialize that attribute to value.

  5. Run the event constructing steps with event.

  6. Return event.

2.6. Defining event interfaces

In general, when defining a new interface that inherits from Event please always ask feedback from the WHATWG or the W3C WebApps WG community.

The CustomEvent interface can be used as starting point. However, do not introduce any init*Event() methods as they are redundant with constructors. Interfaces that inherit from the Event interface that have such a method only have it for historical reasons.

2.7. Interface EventTarget

EventTarget

In all current engines.

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EventListener/handleEvent

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EventListener

In all current engines.

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Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+
[Exposed=(Window,Worker,AudioWorklet)]
interface EventTarget {
  constructor();

  undefined addEventListener(DOMString type, EventListener? callback, optional (AddEventListenerOptions or boolean) options = {});
  undefined removeEventListener(DOMString type, EventListener? callback, optional (EventListenerOptions or boolean) options = {});
  boolean dispatchEvent(Event event);
};

callback interface EventListener {
  undefined handleEvent(Event event);
};

dictionary EventListenerOptions {
  boolean capture = false;
};

dictionary AddEventListenerOptions : EventListenerOptions {
  boolean passive = false;
  boolean once = false;
};

An EventTarget object represents a target to which an event can be dispatched when something has occurred.

Each EventTarget object has an associated event listener list (a list of zero or more event listeners). It is initially the empty list.

An event listener can be used to observe a specific event and consists of:

Although callback is an EventListener object, an event listener is a broader concept as can be seen above.

Each EventTarget object also has an associated get the parent algorithm, which takes an event event, and returns an EventTarget object. Unless specified otherwise it returns null.

Nodes, shadow roots, and documents override the get the parent algorithm.

Each EventTarget object can have an associated activation behavior algorithm. The activation behavior algorithm is passed an event, as indicated in the dispatch algorithm.

This exists because user agents perform certain actions for certain EventTarget objects, e.g., the area element, in response to synthetic MouseEvent events whose type attribute is click. Web compatibility prevented it from being removed and it is now the enshrined way of defining an activation of something. [HTML]

Each EventTarget object that has activation behavior, can additionally have both (not either) a legacy-pre-activation behavior algorithm and a legacy-canceled-activation behavior algorithm.

These algorithms only exist for checkbox and radio input elements and are not to be used for anything else. [HTML]

target = new EventTarget();

Creates a new EventTarget object, which can be used by developers to dispatch and listen for events.

target . addEventListener(type, callback [, options])

Appends an event listener for events whose type attribute value is type. The callback argument sets the callback that will be invoked when the event is dispatched.

The options argument sets listener-specific options. For compatibility this can be a boolean, in which case the method behaves exactly as if the value was specified as options’s capture.

When set to true, options’s capture prevents callback from being invoked when the event’s eventPhase attribute value is BUBBLING_PHASE. When false (or not present), callback will not be invoked when event’s eventPhase attribute value is CAPTURING_PHASE. Either way, callback will be invoked if event’s eventPhase attribute value is AT_TARGET.

When set to true, options’s passive indicates that the callback will not cancel the event by invoking preventDefault(). This is used to enable performance optimizations described in § 2.8 Observing event listeners.

When set to true, options’s once indicates that the callback will only be invoked once after which the event listener will be removed.

The event listener is appended to target’s event listener list and is not appended if it has the same type, callback, and capture.

target . removeEventListener(type, callback [, options])

Removes the event listener in target’s event listener list with the same type, callback, and options.

target . dispatchEvent(event)

Dispatches a synthetic event event to target and returns true if either event’s cancelable attribute value is false or its preventDefault() method was not invoked, and false otherwise.

To flatten options, run these steps:

  1. If options is a boolean, then return options.

  2. Return options’s capture.

To flatten more options, run these steps:

  1. Let capture be the result of flattening options.

  2. Let once and passive be false.

  3. If options is a dictionary, then set passive to options’s passive and once to options’s once.

  4. Return capture, passive, and once.

EventTarget/EventTarget

Firefox59+SafariNoneChrome64+
Opera51+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIENone
Firefox for Android59+iOS SafariNoneChrome for Android64+Android WebView64+Samsung Internet9.0+Opera Mobile47+

The EventTarget() constructor, when invoked, must return a new EventTarget.

Because of the defaults stated elsewhere, the returned EventTarget's get the parent algorithm will return null, and it will have no activation behavior, legacy-pre-activation behavior, or legacy-canceled-activation behavior.

In the future we could allow custom get the parent algorithms. Let us know if this would be useful for your programs. For now, all author-created EventTargets do not participate in a tree structure.

To add an event listener, given an EventTarget object eventTarget and an event listener listener, run these steps:

  1. If eventTarget is a ServiceWorkerGlobalScope object, its service worker’s script resource’s has ever been evaluated flag is set, and listener’s type matches the type attribute value of any of the service worker events, then report a warning to the console that this might not give the expected results. [SERVICE-WORKERS]

  2. If listener’s callback is null, then return.

  3. If eventTarget’s event listener list does not contain an event listener whose type is listener’s type, callback is listener’s callback, and capture is listener’s capture, then append listener to eventTarget’s event listener list.

The add an event listener concept exists to ensure event handlers use the same code path. [HTML]

EventTarget/addEventListener

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The addEventListener(type, callback, options) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let capture, passive, and once be the result of flattening more options.

  2. Add an event listener with this and an event listener whose type is type, callback is callback, capture is capture, passive is passive, and once is once.

To remove an event listener, given an EventTarget object eventTarget and an event listener listener, run these steps:

  1. If eventTarget is a ServiceWorkerGlobalScope object and its service worker’s set of event types to handle contains type, then report a warning to the console that this might not give the expected results. [SERVICE-WORKERS]

  2. Set listener’s removed to true and remove listener from eventTarget’s event listener list.

HTML needs this to define event handlers. [HTML]

To remove all event listeners, given an EventTarget object eventTarget, for each listener of eventTarget’s event listener list, remove an event listener with eventTarget and listener.

HTML needs this to define document.open(). [HTML]

EventTarget/removeEventListener

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The removeEventListener(type, callback, options) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let capture be the result of flattening options.

  2. If this’s event listener list contains an event listener whose type is type, callback is callback, and capture is capture, then remove an event listener with this and that event listener.

The event listener list will not contain multiple event listeners with equal type, callback, and capture, as add an event listener prevents that.

EventTarget/dispatchEvent

In all current engines.

Firefox2+Safari3.2+Chrome4+
Opera9+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari3+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView4+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The dispatchEvent(event) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If event’s dispatch flag is set, or if its initialized flag is not set, then throw an "InvalidStateError" DOMException.

  2. Initialize event’s isTrusted attribute to false.

  3. Return the result of dispatching event to this.

2.8. Observing event listeners

In general, developers do not expect the presence of an event listener to be observable. The impact of an event listener is determined by its callback. That is, a developer adding a no-op event listener would not expect it to have any side effects.

Unfortunately, some event APIs have been designed such that implementing them efficiently requires observing event listeners. This can make the presence of listeners observable in that even empty listeners can have a dramatic performance impact on the behavior of the application. For example, touch and wheel events which can be used to block asynchronous scrolling. In some cases this problem can be mitigated by specifying the event to be cancelable only when there is at least one non-passive listener. For example, non-passive TouchEvent listeners must block scrolling, but if all listeners are passive then scrolling can be allowed to start in parallel by making the TouchEvent uncancelable (so that calls to preventDefault() are ignored). So code dispatching an event is able to observe the absence of non-passive listeners, and use that to clear the cancelable property of the event being dispatched.

Ideally, any new event APIs are defined such that they do not need this property (use public-script-coord@w3.org for discussion).

2.9. Dispatching events

To dispatch an event to a target, with an optional legacy target override flag and an optional legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag, run these steps:

  1. Set event’s dispatch flag.

  2. Let targetOverride be target, if legacy target override flag is not given, and target’s associated Document otherwise. [HTML]

    legacy target override flag is only used by HTML and only when target is a Window object.

  3. Let activationTarget be null.

  4. Let relatedTarget be the result of retargeting event’s relatedTarget against target.

  5. If target is not relatedTarget or target is event’s relatedTarget, then:

    1. Let touchTargets be a new list.

    2. For each touchTarget of event’s touch target list, append the result of retargeting touchTarget against target to touchTargets.

    3. Append to an event path with event, target, targetOverride, relatedTarget, touchTargets, and false.

    4. Let isActivationEvent be true, if event is a MouseEvent object and event’s type attribute is "click", and false otherwise.

    5. If isActivationEvent is true and target has activation behavior, then set activationTarget to target.

    6. Let slottable be target, if target is a slottable and is assigned, and null otherwise.

    7. Let slot-in-closed-tree be false.

    8. Let parent be the result of invoking target’s get the parent with event.

    9. While parent is non-null:

      1. If slottable is non-null:

        1. Assert: parent is a slot.

        2. Set slottable to null.

        3. If parent’s root is a shadow root whose mode is "closed", then set slot-in-closed-tree to true.

      2. If parent is a slottable and is assigned, then set slottable to parent.

      3. Let relatedTarget be the result of retargeting event’s relatedTarget against parent.

      4. Let touchTargets be a new list.

      5. For each touchTarget of event’s touch target list, append the result of retargeting touchTarget against parent to touchTargets.

      6. If parent is a Window object, or parent is a node and target’s root is a shadow-including inclusive ancestor of parent, then:

        1. If isActivationEvent is true, event’s bubbles attribute is true, activationTarget is null, and parent has activation behavior, then set activationTarget to parent.

        2. Append to an event path with event, parent, null, relatedTarget, touchTargets, and slot-in-closed-tree.

      7. Otherwise, if parent is relatedTarget, then set parent to null.

      8. Otherwise, set target to parent and then:

        1. If isActivationEvent is true, activationTarget is null, and target has activation behavior, then set activationTarget to target.

        2. Append to an event path with event, parent, target, relatedTarget, touchTargets, and slot-in-closed-tree.

      9. If parent is non-null, then set parent to the result of invoking parent’s get the parent with event.

      10. Set slot-in-closed-tree to false.

    10. Let clearTargetsStruct be the last struct in event’s path whose shadow-adjusted target is non-null.

    11. Let clearTargets be true if clearTargetsStruct’s shadow-adjusted target, clearTargetsStruct’s relatedTarget, or an EventTarget object in clearTargetsStruct’s touch target list is a node and its root is a shadow root, and false otherwise.

    12. If activationTarget is non-null and activationTarget has legacy-pre-activation behavior, then run activationTarget’s legacy-pre-activation behavior.

    13. For each struct in event’s path, in reverse order:

      1. If struct’s shadow-adjusted target is non-null, then set event’s eventPhase attribute to AT_TARGET.

      2. Otherwise, set event’s eventPhase attribute to CAPTURING_PHASE.

      3. Invoke with struct, event, "capturing", and legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag if given.

    14. For each struct in event’s path:

      1. If struct’s shadow-adjusted target is non-null, then set event’s eventPhase attribute to AT_TARGET.

      2. Otherwise:

        1. If event’s bubbles attribute is false, then continue.

        2. Set event’s eventPhase attribute to BUBBLING_PHASE.

      3. Invoke with struct, event, "bubbling", and legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag if given.

  6. Set event’s eventPhase attribute to NONE.

  7. Set event’s currentTarget attribute to null.

  8. Set event’s path to the empty list.

  9. Unset event’s dispatch flag, stop propagation flag, and stop immediate propagation flag.

  10. If clearTargets, then:

    1. Set event’s target to null.

    2. Set event’s relatedTarget to null.

    3. Set event’s touch target list to the empty list.

  11. If activationTarget is non-null, then:

    1. If event’s canceled flag is unset, then run activationTarget’s activation behavior with event.

    2. Otherwise, if activationTarget has legacy-canceled-activation behavior, then run activationTarget’s legacy-canceled-activation behavior.

  12. Return false if event’s canceled flag is set, and true otherwise.

To append to an event path, given an event, invocationTarget, shadowAdjustedTarget, relatedTarget, touchTargets, and a slot-in-closed-tree, run these steps:

  1. Let invocationTargetInShadowTree be false.

  2. If invocationTarget is a node and its root is a shadow root, then set invocationTargetInShadowTree to true.

  3. Let root-of-closed-tree be false.

  4. If invocationTarget is a shadow root whose mode is "closed", then set root-of-closed-tree to true.

  5. Append a new struct to event’s path whose invocation target is invocationTarget, invocation-target-in-shadow-tree is invocationTargetInShadowTree, shadow-adjusted target is shadowAdjustedTarget, relatedTarget is relatedTarget, touch target list is touchTargets, root-of-closed-tree is root-of-closed-tree, and slot-in-closed-tree is slot-in-closed-tree.

To invoke, given a struct, event, phase, and an optional legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag, run these steps:

  1. Set event’s target to the shadow-adjusted target of the last struct in event’s path, that is either struct or preceding struct, whose shadow-adjusted target is non-null.

  2. Set event’s relatedTarget to struct’s relatedTarget.

  3. Set event’s touch target list to struct’s touch target list.

  4. If event’s stop propagation flag is set, then return.

  5. Initialize event’s currentTarget attribute to struct’s invocation target.

  6. Let listeners be a clone of event’s currentTarget attribute value’s event listener list.

    This avoids event listeners added after this point from being run. Note that removal still has an effect due to the removed field.

  7. Let invocationTargetInShadowTree be struct’s invocation-target-in-shadow-tree.

  8. Let found be the result of running inner invoke with event, listeners, phase, invocationTargetInShadowTree, and legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag if given.

  9. If found is false and event’s isTrusted attribute is true, then:

    1. Let originalEventType be event’s type attribute value.

    2. If event’s type attribute value is a match for any of the strings in the first column in the following table, set event’s type attribute value to the string in the second column on the same row as the matching string, and return otherwise.

      Event type Legacy event type
      "animationend" "webkitAnimationEnd"
      "animationiteration" "webkitAnimationIteration"
      "animationstart" "webkitAnimationStart"
      "transitionend" "webkitTransitionEnd"
    3. Inner invoke with event, listeners, phase, invocationTargetInShadowTree, and legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag if given.

    4. Set event’s type attribute value to originalEventType.

To inner invoke, given an event, listeners, phase, invocationTargetInShadowTree, and an optional legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag, run these steps:

  1. Let found be false.

  2. For each listener in listeners, whose removed is false:

    1. If event’s type attribute value is not listener’s type, then continue.

    2. Set found to true.

    3. If phase is "capturing" and listener’s capture is false, then continue.

    4. If phase is "bubbling" and listener’s capture is true, then continue.

    5. If listener’s once is true, then remove listener from event’s currentTarget attribute value’s event listener list.

    6. Let global be listener callback’s associated Realm’s global object.

    7. Let currentEvent be undefined.

    8. If global is a Window object, then:

      1. Set currentEvent to global’s current event.

      2. If invocationTargetInShadowTree is false, then set global’s current event to event.

    9. If listener’s passive is true, then set event’s in passive listener flag.

    10. Call a user object’s operation with listener’s callback, "handleEvent", « event », and event’s currentTarget attribute value. If this throws an exception, then:

      1. Report the exception.

      2. Set legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag if given.

        The legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag is only used by Indexed Database API. [INDEXEDDB]

    11. Unset event’s in passive listener flag.

    12. If global is a Window object, then set global’s current event to currentEvent.

    13. If event’s stop immediate propagation flag is set, then return found.

  3. Return found.

2.10. Firing events

To fire an event named e at target, optionally using an eventConstructor, with a description of how IDL attributes are to be initialized, and a legacy target override flag, run these steps:

  1. If eventConstructor is not given, then let eventConstructor be Event.

  2. Let event be the result of creating an event given eventConstructor, in the relevant Realm of target.

  3. Initialize event’s type attribute to e.

  4. Initialize any other IDL attributes of event as described in the invocation of this algorithm.

    This also allows for the isTrusted attribute to be set to false.

  5. Return the result of dispatching event at target, with legacy target override flag set if set.

Fire in the context of DOM is short for creating, initializing, and dispatching an event. Fire an event makes that process easier to write down.

If the event needs its bubbles or cancelable attribute initialized, one could write "fire an event named submit at target with its cancelable attribute initialized to true".

Or, when a custom constructor is needed, "fire an event named click at target using MouseEvent with its detail attribute initialized to 1".

Occasionally the return value is important:

  1. Let doAction be the result of firing an event named like at target.

  2. If doAction is true, then …

2.11. Action versus occurrence

An event signifies an occurrence, not an action. Phrased differently, it represents a notification from an algorithm and can be used to influence the future course of that algorithm (e.g., through invoking preventDefault()). Events must not be used as actions or initiators that cause some algorithm to start running. That is not what they are for.

This is called out here specifically because previous iterations of the DOM had a concept of "default actions" associated with events that gave folks all the wrong ideas. Events do not represent or cause actions, they can only be used to influence an ongoing one.

3. Aborting ongoing activities

Though promises do not have a built-in aborting mechanism, many APIs using them require abort semantics. AbortController is meant to support these requirements by providing an abort() method that toggles the state of a corresponding AbortSignal object. The API which wishes to support aborting can accept an AbortSignal object, and use its state to determine how to proceed.

APIs that rely upon AbortController are encouraged to respond to abort() by rejecting any unsettled promise with a new "AbortError" DOMException.

A hypothetical doAmazingness({ ... }) method could accept an AbortSignal object in order to support aborting as follows:

const controller = new AbortController();
const signal = controller.signal;

startSpinner();

doAmazingness({ ..., signal })
  .then(result => ...)
  .catch(err => {
    if (err.name == 'AbortError') return;
    showUserErrorMessage();
  })
  .then(() => stopSpinner());

// …

controller.abort();

doAmazingness could be implemented as follows:

function doAmazingness({signal}) {
  if (signal.aborted) {
    return Promise.reject(new DOMException('Aborted', 'AbortError'));
  }

  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    // Begin doing amazingness, and call resolve(result) when done.
    // But also, watch for signals:
    signal.addEventListener('abort', () => {
      // Stop doing amazingness, and:
      reject(new DOMException('Aborted', 'AbortError'));
    });
  });
}

APIs that require more granular control could extend both AbortController and AbortSignal objects according to their needs.

3.1. Interface AbortController

AbortController

In all current engines.

Firefox57+Safari12.1+Chrome66+
Opera53+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)16+IENone
Firefox for Android57+iOS Safari12.2+Chrome for Android66+Android WebView66+Samsung Internet9.0+Opera Mobile47+
[Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface AbortController {
  constructor();

  [SameObject] readonly attribute AbortSignal signal;

  undefined abort();
};
controller = new AbortController()
Returns a new controller whose signal is set to a newly created AbortSignal object.
controller . signal
Returns the AbortSignal object associated with this object.
controller . abort()
Invoking this method will set this object’s AbortSignal's aborted flag and signal to any observers that the associated activity is to be aborted.

An AbortController object has an associated signal (an AbortSignal object).

AbortController/AbortController

In all current engines.

Firefox57+Safari12.1+Chrome66+
Opera53+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)16+IENone
Firefox for Android57+iOS Safari12.2+Chrome for Android66+Android WebView66+Samsung Internet9.0+Opera Mobile47+

The new AbortController() constructor steps are:

  1. Let signal be a new AbortSignal object.

  2. Set this’s signal to signal.

AbortController/signal

In all current engines.

Firefox57+Safari12.1+Chrome66+
Opera53+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)16+IENone
Firefox for Android57+iOS Safari12.2+Chrome for Android66+Android WebView66+Samsung Internet9.0+Opera Mobile47+

The signal getter steps are to return this’s signal.

AbortController/abort

In all current engines.

Firefox57+Safari12.1+Chrome66+
Opera53+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)16+IENone
Firefox for Android57+iOS Safari12.2+Chrome for Android66+Android WebView66+Samsung Internet9.0+Opera Mobile47+

The abort() method steps are to signal abort on this’s signal.

3.2. Interface AbortSignal

AbortSignal

In all current engines.

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[Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface AbortSignal : EventTarget {
  readonly attribute boolean aborted;

  attribute EventHandler onabort;
};
signal . aborted
Returns true if this AbortSignal's AbortController has signaled to abort, and false otherwise.

An AbortSignal object has an associated aborted flag. It is unset unless specified otherwise.

An AbortSignal object has associated abort algorithms, which is a set of algorithms which are to be executed when its aborted flag is set. Unless specified otherwise, its value is the empty set.

To add an algorithm algorithm to an AbortSignal object signal, run these steps:

  1. If signal’s aborted flag is set, then return.

  2. Append algorithm to signal’s abort algorithms.

To remove an algorithm algorithm from an AbortSignal signal, remove algorithm from signal’s abort algorithms.

The abort algorithms enable APIs with complex requirements to react in a reasonable way to abort(). For example, a given API’s aborted flag might need to be propagated to a cross-thread environment, such as a service worker.

AbortSignal/onabort

In all current engines.

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Firefox for Android57+iOS Safari11.3+Chrome for Android66+Android WebView66+Samsung Internet9.0+Opera Mobile47+

The aborted getter steps are to return true if this’s aborted flag is set; otherwise false.

AbortSignal/abort_event

In all current engines.

Firefox57+Safari11.1+Chrome66+
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Firefox for Android57+iOS Safari11.3+Chrome for Android66+Android WebView66+Samsung Internet9.0+Opera Mobile47+

AbortSignal/aborted

In all current engines.

Firefox57+Safari11.1+Chrome66+
Opera53+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)16+IENone
Firefox for Android57+iOS Safari11.3+Chrome for Android66+Android WebView66+Samsung Internet9.0+Opera Mobile47+

The onabort attribute is an event handler IDL attribute for the onabort event handler, whose event handler event type is abort.

Changes to an AbortSignal object represent the wishes of the corresponding AbortController object, but an API observing the AbortSignal object can chose to ignore them. For instance, if the operation has already completed.

To signal abort, given a AbortSignal object signal, run these steps:

  1. If signal’s aborted flag is set, then return.

  2. Set signal’s aborted flag.

  3. For each algorithm in signal’s abort algorithms: run algorithm.

  4. Empty signal’s abort algorithms.

  5. Fire an event named abort at signal.

A followingSignal (an AbortSignal) is made to follow a parentSignal (an AbortSignal) by running these steps:

  1. If followingSignal’s aborted flag is set, then return.

  2. If parentSignal’s aborted flag is set, then signal abort on followingSignal.

  3. Otherwise, add the following abort steps to parentSignal:

    1. Signal abort on followingSignal.

3.3. Using AbortController and AbortSignal objects in APIs

Any web platform API using promises to represent operations that can be aborted must adhere to the following:

The steps for a promise-returning method doAmazingness(options) could be as follows:

  1. Let p be a new promise.

  2. If optionssignal member is present, then:

    1. If optionssignal’s aborted flag is set, then reject p with an "AbortError" DOMException and return p.

    2. Add the following abort steps to optionssignal:

      1. Stop doing amazing things.

      2. Reject p with an "AbortError" DOMException.

  3. Run these steps in parallel:

    1. Let amazingResult be the result of doing some amazing things.

    2. Resolve p with amazingResult.

  4. Return p.

APIs not using promises should still adhere to the above as much as possible.

4. Nodes

4.1. Introduction to "The DOM"

In its original sense, "The DOM" is an API for accessing and manipulating documents (in particular, HTML and XML documents). In this specification, the term "document" is used for any markup-based resource, ranging from short static documents to long essays or reports with rich multimedia, as well as to fully-fledged interactive applications.

Each such document is represented as a node tree. Some of the nodes in a tree can have children, while others are always leaves.

To illustrate, consider this HTML document:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html class=e>
 <head><title>Aliens?</title></head>
 <body>Why yes.</body>
</html>

It is represented as follows:

Note that, due to the magic that is HTML parsing, not all ASCII whitespace were turned into Text nodes, but the general concept is clear. Markup goes in, a tree of nodes comes out.

The most excellent Live DOM Viewer can be used to explore this matter in more detail.

4.2. Node tree

Document, DocumentType, DocumentFragment, Element, Text, ProcessingInstruction, and Comment objects (simply called nodes) participate in a tree, simply named the node tree.

A node tree is constrained as follows, expressed as a relationship between the type of node and its allowed children:

Document

In tree order:

  1. Zero or more nodes each of which is ProcessingInstruction or Comment.

  2. Optionally one DocumentType node.

  3. Zero or more nodes each of which is ProcessingInstruction or Comment.

  4. Optionally one Element node.

  5. Zero or more nodes each of which is ProcessingInstruction or Comment.

DocumentFragment
Element

Zero or more nodes each of which is Element, Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment.

DocumentType
Text
ProcessingInstruction
Comment

None.

To determine the length of a node node, switch on node:

DocumentType

Zero.

Text
ProcessingInstruction
Comment

Its data’s length.

Any other node

Its number of children.

A node is considered empty if its length is zero.

4.2.1. Document tree

A document tree is a node tree whose root is a document.

The document element of a document is the element whose parent is that document, if it exists, and null otherwise.

Per the node tree constraints, there can be only one such element.

An element is in a document tree if its root is a document.

An element is in a document if it is in a document tree. The term in a document is no longer supposed to be used. It indicates that the standard using it has not been updated to account for shadow trees.

4.2.2. Shadow tree

A shadow tree is a node tree whose root is a shadow root.

A shadow root is always attached to another node tree through its host. A shadow tree is therefore never alone. The node tree of a shadow root’s host is sometimes referred to as the light tree.

A shadow tree’s corresponding light tree can be a shadow tree itself.

An element is connected if its shadow-including root is a document.

4.2.2.1. Slots

Element/slot

In all current engines.

Firefox63+Safari10+Chrome53+
Opera40+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIENone
Firefox for Android63+iOS Safari10+Chrome for Android53+Android WebView53+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

A shadow tree contains zero or more elements that are slots.

A slot can only be created through HTML’s slot element.

A slot has an associated name (a string). Unless stated otherwise it is the empty string.

Use these attribute change steps to update a slot’s name:

  1. If element is a slot, localName is name, and namespace is null, then:

    1. If value is oldValue, then return.

    2. If value is null and oldValue is the empty string, then return.

    3. If value is the empty string and oldValue is null, then return.

    4. If value is null or the empty string, then set element’s name to the empty string.

    5. Otherwise, set element’s name to value.

    6. Run assign slottables for a tree with element’s root.

The first slot in a shadow tree, in tree order, whose name is the empty string, is sometimes known as the "default slot".

A slot has an associated assigned nodes (a list of slottables). Unless stated otherwise it is empty.

4.2.2.2. Slottables

Element and Text nodes are slottables.

A slot can be a slottable.

A slottable has an associated name (a string). Unless stated otherwise it is the empty string.

Use these attribute change steps to update a slottable’s name:

  1. If localName is slot and namespace is null, then:

    1. If value is oldValue, then return.

    2. If value is null and oldValue is the empty string, then return.

    3. If value is the empty string and oldValue is null, then return.

    4. If value is null or the empty string, then set element’s name to the empty string.

    5. Otherwise, set element’s name to value.

    6. If element is assigned, then run assign slottables for element’s assigned slot.

    7. Run assign a slot for element.

A slottable has an associated assigned slot (null or a slot). Unless stated otherwise it is null. A slottable is assigned if its assigned slot is non-null.

4.2.2.3. Finding slots and slottables

To find a slot for a given slottable slottable and an optional open flag (unset unless stated otherwise), run these steps:

  1. If slottable’s parent is null, then return null.

  2. Let shadow be slottable’s parent’s shadow root.

  3. If shadow is null, then return null.

  4. If the open flag is set and shadow’s mode is not "open", then return null.

  5. Return the first slot in tree order in shadow’s descendants whose name is slottable’s name, if any, and null otherwise.

To find slottables for a given slot slot, run these steps:

  1. Let result be an empty list.

  2. If slot’s root is not a shadow root, then return result.

  3. Let host be slot’s root’s host.

  4. For each slottable child of host, slottable, in tree order:

    1. Let foundSlot be the result of finding a slot given slottable.

    2. If foundSlot is slot, then append slottable to result.

  5. Return result.

To find flattened slottables for a given slot slot, run these steps:

  1. Let result be an empty list.

  2. If slot’s root is not a shadow root, then return result.

  3. Let slottables be the result of finding slottables given slot.

  4. If slottables is the empty list, then append each slottable child of slot, in tree order, to slottables.

  5. For each node in slottables:

    1. If node is a slot whose root is a shadow root, then:

      1. Let temporaryResult be the result of finding flattened slottables given node.

      2. Append each slottable in temporaryResult, in order, to result.

    2. Otherwise, append node to result.

  6. Return result.

4.2.2.4. Assigning slottables and slots

To assign slottables for a slot slot, run these steps:

  1. Let slottables be the result of finding slottables for slot.

  2. If slottables and slot’s assigned nodes are not identical, then run signal a slot change for slot.

  3. Set slot’s assigned nodes to slottables.

  4. For each slottable in slottables, set slottable’s assigned slot to slot.

To assign slottables for a tree, given a node root, run assign slottables for each slot slot in root’s inclusive descendants, in tree order.

To assign a slot, given a slottable slottable, run these steps:

  1. Let slot be the result of finding a slot with slottable.

  2. If slot is non-null, then run assign slottables for slot.

4.2.2.5. Signaling slot change

Each similar-origin window agent has signal slots (a set of slots), which is initially empty. [HTML]

To signal a slot change, for a slot slot, run these steps:

  1. Append slot to slot’s relevant agent’s signal slots.

  2. Queue a mutation observer microtask.

4.2.3. Mutation algorithms

To ensure pre-insertion validity of a node into a parent before a child, run these steps:

  1. If parent is not a Document, DocumentFragment, or Element node, then throw a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

  2. If node is a host-including inclusive ancestor of parent, then throw a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

  3. If child is non-null and its parent is not parent, then throw a "NotFoundError" DOMException.

  4. If node is not a DocumentFragment, DocumentType, Element, Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node, then throw a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

  5. If either node is a Text node and parent is a document, or node is a doctype and parent is not a document, then throw a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

  6. If parent is a document, and any of the statements below, switched on node, are true, then throw a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

    DocumentFragment node

    If node has more than one element child or has a Text node child.

    Otherwise, if node has one element child and either parent has an element child, child is a doctype, or child is non-null and a doctype is following child.

    element

    parent has an element child, child is a doctype, or child is non-null and a doctype is following child.

    doctype

    parent has a doctype child, child is non-null and an element is preceding child, or child is null and parent has an element child.

To pre-insert a node into a parent before a child, run these steps:

  1. Ensure pre-insertion validity of node into parent before child.

  2. Let referenceChild be child.

  3. If referenceChild is node, then set referenceChild to node’s next sibling.

  4. Insert node into parent before referenceChild.

  5. Return node.

Specifications may define insertion steps for all or some nodes. The algorithm is passed insertedNode, as indicated in the insert algorithm below.

Specifications may define children changed steps for all or some nodes. The algorithm is passed no argument and is called from insert, remove, and replace data.

To insert a node into a parent before a child, with an optional suppress observers flag, run these steps:

  1. Let nodes be node’s children, if node is a DocumentFragment node; otherwise « node ».

  2. Let count be nodes’s size.

  3. If count is 0, then return.

  4. If node is a DocumentFragment node, then:

    1. Remove its children with the suppress observers flag set.

    2. Queue a tree mutation record for node with « », nodes, null, and null.

      This step intentionally does not pay attention to the suppress observers flag.

  5. If child is non-null, then:

    1. For each live range whose start node is parent and start offset is greater than child’s index, increase its start offset by count.

    2. For each live range whose end node is parent and end offset is greater than child’s index, increase its end offset by count.

  6. Let previousSibling be child’s previous sibling or parent’s last child if child is null.

  7. For each node in nodes, in tree order:

    1. Adopt node into parent’s node document.

    2. If child is null, then append node to parent’s children.

    3. Otherwise, insert node into parent’s children before child’s index.

    4. If parent is a shadow host and node is a slottable, then assign a slot for node.

    5. If parent’s root is a shadow root, and parent is a slot whose assigned nodes is the empty list, then run signal a slot change for parent.

    6. Run assign slottables for a tree with node’s root.

    7. For each shadow-including inclusive descendant inclusiveDescendant of node, in shadow-including tree order:

      1. Run the insertion steps with inclusiveDescendant.

      2. If inclusiveDescendant is connected, then:

        1. If inclusiveDescendant is custom, then enqueue a custom element callback reaction with inclusiveDescendant, callback name "connectedCallback", and an empty argument list.

        2. Otherwise, try to upgrade inclusiveDescendant.

          If this successfully upgrades inclusiveDescendant, its connectedCallback will be enqueued automatically during the upgrade an element algorithm.

  8. If suppress observers flag is unset, then queue a tree mutation record for parent with nodes, « », previousSibling, and child.

  9. Run the children changed steps for parent.

To append a node to a parent, pre-insert node into parent before null.

To replace a child with node within a parent, run these steps:

  1. If parent is not a Document, DocumentFragment, or Element node, then throw a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

  2. If node is a host-including inclusive ancestor of parent, then throw a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

  3. If child’s parent is not parent, then throw a "NotFoundError" DOMException.

  4. If node is not a DocumentFragment, DocumentType, Element, Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node, then throw a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

  5. If either node is a Text node and parent is a document, or node is a doctype and parent is not a document, then throw a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

  6. If parent is a document, and any of the statements below, switched on node, are true, then throw a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

    DocumentFragment node

    If node has more than one element child or has a Text node child.

    Otherwise, if node has one element child and either parent has an element child that is not child or a doctype is following child.

    element

    parent has an element child that is not child or a doctype is following child.

    doctype

    parent has a doctype child that is not child, or an element is preceding child.

    The above statements differ from the pre-insert algorithm.

  7. Let referenceChild be child’s next sibling.

  8. If referenceChild is node, then set referenceChild to node’s next sibling.

  9. Let previousSibling be child’s previous sibling.

  10. Let removedNodes be the empty set.

  11. If child’s parent is non-null, then:

    1. Set removedNodes to « child ».

    2. Remove child with the suppress observers flag set.

    The above can only be false if child is node.

  12. Let nodes be node’s children if node is a DocumentFragment node; otherwise « node ».

  13. Insert node into parent before referenceChild with the suppress observers flag set.

  14. Queue a tree mutation record for parent with nodes, removedNodes, previousSibling, and referenceChild.

  15. Return child.

To replace all with a node within a parent, run these steps:

  1. Let removedNodes be parent’s children.

  2. Let addedNodes be the empty set.

  3. If node is a DocumentFragment node, then set addedNodes to node’s children.

  4. Otherwise, if node is non-null, set addedNodes to « node ».

  5. Remove all parent’s children, in tree order, with the suppress observers flag set.

  6. If node is non-null, then insert node into parent before null with the suppress observers flag set.

  7. If either addedNodes or removedNodes is not empty, then queue a tree mutation record for parent with addedNodes, removedNodes, null, and null.

This algorithm does not make any checks with regards to the node tree constraints. Specification authors need to use it wisely.

To pre-remove a child from a parent, run these steps:

  1. If child’s parent is not parent, then throw a "NotFoundError" DOMException.

  2. Remove child.

  3. Return child.

Specifications may define removing steps for all or some nodes. The algorithm is passed removedNode, and optionally oldParent, as indicated in the remove algorithm below.

To remove a node, with an optional suppress observers flag, run these steps:

  1. Let parent be node’s parent

  2. Assert: parent is non-null.

  3. Let index be node’s index.

  4. For each live range whose start node is an inclusive descendant of node, set its start to (parent, index).

  5. For each live range whose end node is an inclusive descendant of node, set its end to (parent, index).

  6. For each live range whose start node is parent and start offset is greater than index, decrease its start offset by 1.

  7. For each live range whose end node is parent and end offset is greater than index, decrease its end offset by 1.

  8. For each NodeIterator object iterator whose root’s node document is node’s node document, run the NodeIterator pre-removing steps given node and iterator.

  9. Let oldPreviousSibling be node’s previous sibling.

  10. Let oldNextSibling be node’s next sibling.

  11. Remove node from its parent’s children.

  12. If node is assigned, then run assign slottables for node’s assigned slot.

  13. If parent’s root is a shadow root, and parent is a slot whose assigned nodes is the empty list, then run signal a slot change for parent.

  14. If node has an inclusive descendant that is a slot, then:

    1. Run assign slottables for a tree with parent’s root.

    2. Run assign slottables for a tree with node.

  15. Run the removing steps with node and parent.

  16. Let isParentConnected be parent’s connected.

  17. If node is custom and isParentConnected is true, then enqueue a custom element callback reaction with node, callback name "disconnectedCallback", and an empty argument list.

    It is intentional for now that custom elements do not get parent passed. This might change in the future if there is a need.

  18. For each shadow-including descendant descendant of node, in shadow-including tree order, then:

    1. Run the removing steps with descendant.

    2. If descendant is custom and isParentConnected is true, then enqueue a custom element callback reaction with descendant, callback name "disconnectedCallback", and an empty argument list.

  19. For each inclusive ancestor inclusiveAncestor of parent, and then for each registered of inclusiveAncestor’s registered observer list, if registered’s options’s subtree is true, then append a new transient registered observer whose observer is registered’s observer, options is registered’s options, and source is registered to node’s registered observer list.

  20. If suppress observers flag is unset, then queue a tree mutation record for parent with « », « node », oldPreviousSibling, and oldNextSibling.

  21. Run the children changed steps for parent.

4.2.4. Mixin NonElementParentNode

Web compatibility prevents the getElementById() method from being exposed on elements (and therefore on ParentNode).

interface mixin NonElementParentNode {
  Element? getElementById(DOMString elementId);
};
Document includes NonElementParentNode;
DocumentFragment includes NonElementParentNode;
node . getElementById(elementId)

Returns the first element within node’s descendants whose ID is elementId.

Document/getElementById

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE5.5+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The getElementById(elementId) method, when invoked, must return the first element, in tree order, within this’s descendants, whose ID is elementId, and null if there is no such element otherwise.

4.2.5. Mixin DocumentOrShadowRoot

DocumentOrShadowRoot

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome53+
Opera40+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IEYes
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for Android53+Android WebView53+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+
interface mixin DocumentOrShadowRoot {
};
Document includes DocumentOrShadowRoot;
ShadowRoot includes DocumentOrShadowRoot;

The DocumentOrShadowRoot mixin is expected to be used by other standards that want to define APIs shared between documents and shadow roots.

4.2.6. Mixin ParentNode

To convert nodes into a node, given nodes and document, run these steps:

  1. Let node be null.

  2. Replace each string in nodes with a new Text node whose data is the string and node document is document.

  3. If nodes contains one node, set node to that node.

  4. Otherwise, set node to a new DocumentFragment whose node document is document, and then append each node in nodes, if any, to it.

  5. Return node.

ParentNode

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari4+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes
interface mixin ParentNode {
  [SameObject] readonly attribute HTMLCollection children;
  readonly attribute Element? firstElementChild;
  readonly attribute Element? lastElementChild;
  readonly attribute unsigned long childElementCount;

  [CEReactions, Unscopable] undefined prepend((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [CEReactions, Unscopable] undefined append((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [CEReactions, Unscopable] undefined replaceChildren((Node or DOMString)... nodes);

  Element? querySelector(DOMString selectors);
  [NewObject] NodeList querySelectorAll(DOMString selectors);
};
Document includes ParentNode;
DocumentFragment includes ParentNode;
Element includes ParentNode;
collection = node . children
Returns the child elements.
element = node . firstElementChild
Returns the first child that is an element, and null otherwise.
element = node . lastElementChild
Returns the last child that is an element, and null otherwise.
node . prepend(nodes)

Inserts nodes before the first child of node, while replacing strings in nodes with equivalent Text nodes.

Throws a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException if the constraints of the node tree are violated.

node . append(nodes)

Inserts nodes after the last child of node, while replacing strings in nodes with equivalent Text nodes.

Throws a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException if the constraints of the node tree are violated.

node . replaceChildren(nodes)

Replace all children of node with nodes, while replacing strings in nodes with equivalent Text nodes.

Throws a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException if the constraints of the node tree are violated.

node . querySelector(selectors)
Returns the first element that is a descendant of node that matches selectors.
node . querySelectorAll(selectors)
Returns all element descendants of node that match selectors.

ParentNode/children

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari4+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari9+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The children attribute’s getter must return an HTMLCollection collection rooted at this matching only element children.

ParentNode/firstElementChild

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari4+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The firstElementChild attribute’s getter must return the first child that is an element, and null otherwise.

ParentNode/lastElementChild

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari4+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The lastElementChild attribute’s getter must return the last child that is an element, and null otherwise.

ParentNode/childElementCount

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari4+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The childElementCount attribute’s getter must return the number of children of this that are elements.

ParentNode/prepend

In all current engines.

Firefox49+Safari10+Chrome54+
Opera39+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)17+IENone
Firefox for Android49+iOS Safari10+Chrome for Android54+Android WebView54+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

The prepend(nodes) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let node be the result of converting nodes into a node given nodes and this’s node document.

  2. Pre-insert node into this before this’s first child.

ParentNode/append

In all current engines.

Firefox49+Safari10+Chrome54+
Opera39+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)17+IENone
Firefox for Android49+iOS Safari10+Chrome for Android54+Android WebView54+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

The append(nodes) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let node be the result of converting nodes into a node given nodes and this’s node document.

  2. Append node to this.

ParentNode/replaceChildren

Firefox78+Safari14+ChromeNone
OperaNoneEdgeNone
Edge (Legacy)NoneIENone
Firefox for AndroidNoneiOS Safari14+Chrome for AndroidNoneAndroid WebViewNoneSamsung InternetNoneOpera MobileNone

The replaceChildren(nodes) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let node be the result of converting nodes into a node given nodes and this’s node document.

  2. Ensure pre-insertion validity of node into this before null.

  3. Replace all with node within this.

Document/querySelector

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari3.2+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE8+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari3+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

ParentNode/querySelector

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari4+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS Safari3.2+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView37+Samsung InternetYesOpera Mobile10.1+

The querySelector(selectors) method, when invoked, must return the first result of running scope-match a selectors string selectors against this, if the result is not an empty list, and null otherwise.

Document/querySelectorAll

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari3.2+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE8+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari3+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

Element/querySelector

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari3.1+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari2+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

Element/querySelectorAll

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari3.1+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari2+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

ParentNode/querySelectorAll

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari4+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS Safari3.2+Chrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera Mobile10.1+

The querySelectorAll(selectors) method, when invoked, must return the static result of running scope-match a selectors string selectors against this.

4.2.7. Mixin NonDocumentTypeChildNode

NonDocumentTypeChildNode

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari4+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera Mobile10.1+

Web compatibility prevents the previousElementSibling and nextElementSibling attributes from being exposed on doctypes (and therefore on ChildNode).

interface mixin NonDocumentTypeChildNode {
  readonly attribute Element? previousElementSibling;
  readonly attribute Element? nextElementSibling;
};
Element includes NonDocumentTypeChildNode;
CharacterData includes NonDocumentTypeChildNode;
element = node . previousElementSibling
Returns the first preceding sibling that is an element, and null otherwise.
element = node . nextElementSibling
Returns the first following sibling that is an element, and null otherwise.

NonDocumentTypeChildNode/previousElementSibling

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari4+Chrome4+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IENone
Firefox for Android4+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera Mobile10.1+

The previousElementSibling attribute’s getter must return the first preceding sibling that is an element, and null otherwise.

NonDocumentTypeChildNode/nextElementSibling

In all current engines.

Firefox3.5+Safari4+Chrome4+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IENone
Firefox for Android4+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera Mobile10.1+

The nextElementSibling attribute’s getter must return the first following sibling that is an element, and null otherwise.

4.2.8. Mixin ChildNode

ChildNode

In all current engines.

Firefox23+Safari4+Chrome1+
Opera10+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android23+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera Mobile10.1+
interface mixin ChildNode {
  [CEReactions, Unscopable] undefined before((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [CEReactions, Unscopable] undefined after((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [CEReactions, Unscopable] undefined replaceWith((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [CEReactions, Unscopable] undefined remove();
};
DocumentType includes ChildNode;
Element includes ChildNode;
CharacterData includes ChildNode;
node . before(...nodes)

Inserts nodes just before node, while replacing strings in nodes with equivalent Text nodes.

Throws a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException if the constraints of the node tree are violated.

node . after(...nodes)

Inserts nodes just after node, while replacing strings in nodes with equivalent Text nodes.

Throws a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException if the constraints of the node tree are violated.

node . replaceWith(...nodes)

Replaces node with nodes, while replacing strings in nodes with equivalent Text nodes.

Throws a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException if the constraints of the node tree are violated.

node . remove()
Removes node.

ChildNode/before

In all current engines.

Firefox49+Safari10+Chrome54+
Opera39+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)17+IENone
Firefox for Android49+iOS Safari10+Chrome for Android54+Android WebView54+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

The before(nodes) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let parent be this’s parent.

  2. If parent is null, then return.

  3. Let viablePreviousSibling be this’s first preceding sibling not in nodes, and null otherwise.

  4. Let node be the result of converting nodes into a node, given nodes and this’s node document.

  5. If viablePreviousSibling is null, set it to parent’s first child, and to viablePreviousSibling’s next sibling otherwise.

  6. Pre-insert node into parent before viablePreviousSibling.

ChildNode/after

In all current engines.

Firefox49+Safari10+Chrome54+
Opera39+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)17+IENone
Firefox for Android49+iOS Safari10+Chrome for Android54+Android WebView54+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

The after(nodes) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let parent be this’s parent.

  2. If parent is null, then return.

  3. Let viableNextSibling be this’s first following sibling not in nodes, and null otherwise.

  4. Let node be the result of converting nodes into a node, given nodes and this’s node document.

  5. Pre-insert node into parent before viableNextSibling.

ChildNode/replaceWith

In all current engines.

Firefox49+SafariYesChrome54+
Opera39+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)17+IENone
Firefox for Android49+iOS SafariYesChrome for Android54+Android WebView54+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

The replaceWith(nodes) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let parent be this’s parent.

  2. If parent is null, then return.

  3. Let viableNextSibling be this’s first following sibling not in nodes, and null otherwise.

  4. Let node be the result of converting nodes into a node, given nodes and this’s node document.

  5. If this’s parent is parent, replace this with node within parent.

    This could have been inserted into node.

  6. Otherwise, pre-insert node into parent before viableNextSibling.

ChildNode/remove

In all current engines.

Firefox23+Safari7+Chrome23+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IENone
Firefox for Android23+iOS Safari7+Chrome for Android25+Android WebView37+Samsung Internet1.5+Opera Mobile14+

The remove() method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If this’s parent is null, then return.

  2. Remove this.

4.2.9. Mixin Slottable

Slottable

In all current engines.

Firefox63+Safari10.1+Chrome53+
Opera40+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIENone
Firefox for Android63+iOS Safari10.3+Chrome for Android53+Android WebView53+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+
interface mixin Slottable {
  readonly attribute HTMLSlotElement? assignedSlot;
};
Element includes Slottable;
Text includes Slottable;

Slottable/assignedSlot

In all current engines.

Firefox63+Safari10.1+Chrome53+
Opera40+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIENone
Firefox for Android63+iOS Safari10.3+Chrome for Android53+Android WebView53+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

Text/assignedSlot

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafari10.1+Chrome53+
Opera40+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)18IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS Safari10.3+Chrome for Android53+Android WebView53+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

The assignedSlot attribute’s getter must return the result of find a slot given this and with the open flag set.

4.2.10. Old-style collections: NodeList and HTMLCollection

A collection is an object that represents a list of nodes. A collection can be either live or static. Unless otherwise stated, a collection must be live.

If a collection is live, then the attributes and methods on that object must operate on the actual underlying data, not a snapshot of the data.

When a collection is created, a filter and a root are associated with it.

The collection then represents a view of the subtree rooted at the collection’s root, containing only nodes that match the given filter. The view is linear. In the absence of specific requirements to the contrary, the nodes within the collection must be sorted in tree order.

4.2.10.1. Interface NodeList

NodeList

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari3+Chrome1+
Opera8+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE8+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

A NodeList object is a collection of nodes.

[Exposed=Window]
interface NodeList {
  getter Node? item(unsigned long index);
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  iterable<Node>;
};
collection . length
Returns the number of nodes in the collection.
element = collection . item(index)
element = collection[index]
Returns the node with index index from the collection. The nodes are sorted in tree order.

The object’s supported property indices are the numbers in the range zero to one less than the number of nodes represented by the collection. If there are no such elements, then there are no supported property indices.

NodeList/length

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The length attribute must return the number of nodes represented by the collection.

NodeList/item

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The item(index) method must return the indexth node in the collection. If there is no indexth node in the collection, then the method must return null.

4.2.10.2. Interface HTMLCollection

HTMLCollection

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari4+Chrome1+
Opera8+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE8+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari3.2+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+
[Exposed=Window, LegacyUnenumerableNamedProperties]
interface HTMLCollection {
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  getter Element? item(unsigned long index);
  getter Element? namedItem(DOMString name);
};

An HTMLCollection object is a collection of elements.

HTMLCollection is a historical artifact we cannot rid the web of. While developers are of course welcome to keep using it, new API standard designers ought not to use it (use sequence<T> in IDL instead).

collection . length
Returns the number of elements in the collection.
element = collection . item(index)
element = collection[index]
Returns the element with index index from the collection. The elements are sorted in tree order.
element = collection . namedItem(name)
element = collection[name]
Returns the first element with ID or name name from the collection.

The object’s supported property indices are the numbers in the range zero to one less than the number of elements represented by the collection. If there are no such elements, then there are no supported property indices.

The length attribute’s getter must return the number of nodes represented by the collection.

The item(index) method, when invoked, must return the indexth element in the collection. If there is no indexth element in the collection, then the method must return null.

The supported property names are the values from the list returned by these steps:

  1. Let result be an empty list.

  2. For each element represented by the collection, in tree order:

    1. If element has an ID which is not in result, append element’s ID to result.

    2. If element is in the HTML namespace and has a name attribute whose value is neither the empty string nor is in result, append element’s name attribute value to result.

  3. Return result.

The namedItem(key) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If key is the empty string, return null.

  2. Return the first element in the collection for which at least one of the following is true:

    or null if there is no such element.

4.3. Mutation observers

HTMLSlotElement/slotchange_event

In all current engines.

Firefox63+Safari10.1+Chrome53+
Opera40+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIENone
Firefox for Android63+iOS Safari10.3+Chrome for Android53+Android WebView53+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

Each similar-origin window agent has a mutation observer microtask queued (a boolean), which is initially false. [HTML]

Each similar-origin window agent also has mutation observers (a set of zero or more MutationObserver objects), which is initially empty.

To queue a mutation observer microtask, run these steps:

  1. If the surrounding agent’s mutation observer microtask queued is true, then return.

  2. Set the surrounding agent’s mutation observer microtask queued to true.

  3. Queue a microtask to notify mutation observers.

To notify mutation observers, run these steps:

  1. Set the surrounding agent’s mutation observer microtask queued to false.

  2. Let notifySet be a clone of the surrounding agent’s mutation observers.

  3. Let signalSet be a clone of the surrounding agent’s signal slots.

  4. Empty the surrounding agent’s signal slots.

  5. For each mo of notifySet:

    1. Let records be a clone of mo’s record queue.

    2. Empty mo’s record queue.

    3. For each node of mo’s node list, remove all transient registered observers whose observer is mo from node’s registered observer list.

    4. If records is not empty, then invoke mo’s callback with « records, mo », and mo. If this throws an exception, then report the exception.

  6. For each slot of signalSet, fire an event named slotchange, with its bubbles attribute set to true, at slot.


Each node has a registered observer list (a list of zero or more registered observers), which is initially empty.

A registered observer consists of an observer (a MutationObserver object) and options (a MutationObserverInit dictionary).

A transient registered observer is a registered observer that also consists of a source (a registered observer).

Transient registered observers are used to track mutations within a given node’s descendants after node has been removed so they do not get lost when subtree is set to true on node’s parent.

4.3.1. Interface MutationObserver

MutationObserver

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari7+Chrome26+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari7+Chrome for Android26+Android WebView37+Samsung Internet1.5+Opera Mobile14+

MutationObserverInit/attributeFilter

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari7+Chrome26+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari7+Chrome for Android26+Samsung Internet1.5+Opera Mobile14+

MutationObserverInit/attributeOldValue

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari7+Chrome26+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari7+Chrome for Android26+Samsung Internet1.5+Opera Mobile14+

MutationObserverInit/attributes

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari7+Chrome26+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari7+Chrome for Android26+Samsung Internet1.5+Opera Mobile14+

MutationObserverInit/characterData

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari7+Chrome26+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari7+Chrome for Android26+Samsung Internet1.5+Opera Mobile14+

MutationObserverInit/characterDataOldValue

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari7+Chrome26+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari7+Chrome for Android26+Samsung Internet1.5+Opera Mobile14+

MutationObserverInit/childList

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari7+Chrome26+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari7+Chrome for Android26+Samsung Internet1.5+Opera Mobile14+

MutationObserverInit/subtree

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari7+Chrome26+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari7+Chrome for Android26+Samsung Internet1.5+Opera Mobile14+

MutationObserverInit

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari7+Chrome26+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari7+Chrome for Android26+Samsung Internet1.5+Opera Mobile14+
[Exposed=Window]
interface MutationObserver {
  constructor(MutationCallback callback);

  undefined observe(Node target, optional MutationObserverInit options = {});
  undefined disconnect();
  sequence<MutationRecord> takeRecords();
};

callback MutationCallback = undefined (sequence<MutationRecord> mutations, MutationObserver observer);

dictionary MutationObserverInit {
  boolean childList = false;
  boolean attributes;
  boolean characterData;
  boolean subtree = false;
  boolean attributeOldValue;
  boolean characterDataOldValue;
  sequence<DOMString> attributeFilter;
};

A MutationObserver object can be used to observe mutations to the tree of nodes.

Each MutationObserver object has these associated concepts:

observer = new MutationObserver(callback)
Constructs a MutationObserver object and sets its callback to callback. The callback is invoked with a list of MutationRecord objects as first argument and the constructed MutationObserver object as second argument. It is invoked after nodes registered with the observe() method, are mutated.
observer . observe(target, options)
Instructs the user agent to observe a given target (a node) and report any mutations based on the criteria given by options (an object).

The options argument allows for setting mutation observation options via object members. These are the object members that can be used:

childList
Set to true if mutations to target’s children are to be observed.
attributes
Set to true if mutations to target’s attributes are to be observed. Can be omitted if attributeOldValue or attributeFilter is specified.
characterData
Set to true if mutations to target’s data are to be observed. Can be omitted if characterDataOldValue is specified.
subtree
Set to true if mutations to not just target, but also target’s descendants are to be observed.
attributeOldValue
Set to true if attributes is true or omitted and target’s attribute value before the mutation needs to be recorded.
characterDataOldValue
Set to true if characterData is set to true or omitted and target’s data before the mutation needs to be recorded.
attributeFilter
Set to a list of attribute local names (without namespace) if not all attribute mutations need to be observed and attributes is true or omitted.
observer . disconnect()
Stops observer from observing any mutations. Until the observe() method is used again, observer’s callback will not be invoked.
observer . takeRecords()
Empties the record queue and returns what was in there.

MutationObserver/MutationObserver

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari7+Chrome26+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari7+Chrome for Android26+Android WebViewYesSamsung Internet1.5+Opera Mobile14+

The MutationObserver(callback) constructor, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let mo be a new MutationObserver object whose callback is callback.

  2. Append mo to mo’s relevant agent’s mutation observers.

  3. Return mo.

MutationObserver/observe

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari6+Chrome18+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari6+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView37+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile14+

The observe(target, options) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If either options’s attributeOldValue or attributeFilter is present and options’s attributes is omitted, then set options’s attributes to true.

  2. If options’s characterDataOldValue is present and options’s characterData is omitted, then set options’s characterData to true.

  3. If none of options’s childList, attributes, and characterData is true, then throw a TypeError.

  4. If options’s attributeOldValue is true and options’s attributes is false, then throw a TypeError.

  5. If options’s attributeFilter is present and options’s attributes is false, then throw a TypeError.

  6. If options’s characterDataOldValue is true and options’s characterData is false, then throw a TypeError.

  7. For each registered of target’s registered observer list, if registered’s observer is this:

    1. For each node of this’s node list, remove all transient registered observers whose source is registered from node’s registered observer list.

    2. Set registered’s options to options.

  8. Otherwise:

    1. Append a new registered observer whose observer is this and options is options to target’s registered observer list.

    2. Append target to this’s node list.

MutationObserver/disconnect

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari6+Chrome18+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari6+Chrome for Android18+Android WebViewYesSamsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile14+

The disconnect() method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. For each node of this’s node list, remove any registered observer from node’s registered observer list for which this is the observer.

  2. Empty this’s record queue.

MutationObserver/takeRecords

In all current engines.

Firefox14+Safari6+Chrome18+
Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE11
Firefox for Android14+iOS Safari6+Chrome for Android18+Android WebViewYesSamsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile14+

The takeRecords() method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let records be a clone of this’s record queue.

  2. Empty this’s record queue.

  3. Return records.

4.3.2. Queuing a mutation record

To queue a mutation record of type for target with name, namespace, oldValue, addedNodes, removedNodes, previousSibling, and nextSibling, run these steps:

  1. Let interestedObservers be an empty map.

  2. Let nodes be the inclusive ancestors of target.

  3. For each node in nodes, and then for each registered of node’s registered observer list:

    1. Let options be registered’s options.

    2. If none of the following are true

      • node is not target and options’s subtree is false
      • type is "attributes" and options’s attributes is not true
      • type is "attributes", options’s attributeFilter is present, and options’s attributeFilter does not contain name or namespace is non-null
      • type is "characterData" and options’s characterData is not true
      • type is "childList" and options’s childList is false

      then:

      1. Let mo be registered’s observer.

      2. If interestedObservers[mo] does not exist, then set interestedObservers[mo] to null.

      3. If either type is "attributes" and options’s attributeOldValue is true, or type is "characterData" and options’s characterDataOldValue is true, then set interestedObservers[mo] to oldValue.

  4. For each observermappedOldValue of interestedObservers:

    1. Let record be a new MutationRecord object with its type set to type, target set to target, attributeName set to name, attributeNamespace set to namespace, oldValue set to mappedOldValue, addedNodes set to addedNodes, removedNodes set to removedNodes, previousSibling set to previousSibling, and nextSibling set to nextSibling.

    2. Enqueue record to observer’s record queue.

  5. Queue a mutation observer microtask.

To queue a tree mutation record for target with addedNodes, removedNodes, previousSibling, and nextSibling, run these steps:

  1. Assert: either addedNodes or removedNodes is not empty.

  2. Queue a mutation record of "childList" for target with null, null, null, addedNodes, removedNodes, previousSibling, and nextSibling.

4.3.3. Interface MutationRecord

MutationRecord

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)18IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes
[Exposed=Window]
interface MutationRecord {
  readonly attribute DOMString type;
  [SameObject] readonly attribute Node target;
  [SameObject] readonly attribute NodeList addedNodes;
  [SameObject] readonly attribute NodeList removedNodes;
  readonly attribute Node? previousSibling;
  readonly attribute Node? nextSibling;
  readonly attribute DOMString? attributeName;
  readonly attribute DOMString? attributeNamespace;
  readonly attribute DOMString? oldValue;
};
record . type
Returns "attributes" if it was an attribute mutation. "characterData" if it was a mutation to a CharacterData node. And "childList" if it was a mutation to the tree of nodes.
record . target
Returns the node the mutation affected, depending on the type. For "attributes", it is the element whose attribute changed. For "characterData", it is the CharacterData node. For "childList", it is the node whose children changed.
record . addedNodes
record . removedNodes
Return the nodes added and removed respectively.
record . previousSibling
record . nextSibling
Return the previous and next sibling respectively of the added or removed nodes, and null otherwise.
record . attributeName
Returns the local name of the changed attribute, and null otherwise.
record . attributeNamespace
Returns the namespace of the changed attribute, and null otherwise.
record . oldValue
The return value depends on type. For "attributes", it is the value of the changed attribute before the change. For "characterData", it is the data of the changed node before the change. For "childList", it is null.

The type, target, addedNodes, removedNodes, previousSibling, nextSibling, attributeName, attributeNamespace, and oldValue attributes must return the values they were initialized to.

4.3.4. Garbage collection

Nodes have a strong reference to registered observers in their registered observer list.

Registered observers in a node’s registered observer list have a weak reference to the node.

4.4. Interface Node

Node

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1.1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE5+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+
[Exposed=Window]
interface Node : EventTarget {
  const unsigned short ELEMENT_NODE = 1;
  const unsigned short ATTRIBUTE_NODE = 2;
  const unsigned short TEXT_NODE = 3;
  const unsigned short CDATA_SECTION_NODE = 4;
  const unsigned short ENTITY_REFERENCE_NODE = 5; // historical
  const unsigned short ENTITY_NODE = 6; // historical
  const unsigned short PROCESSING_INSTRUCTION_NODE = 7;
  const unsigned short COMMENT_NODE = 8;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_NODE = 9;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_TYPE_NODE = 10;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_FRAGMENT_NODE = 11;
  const unsigned short NOTATION_NODE = 12; // historical
  readonly attribute unsigned short nodeType;
  readonly attribute DOMString nodeName;

  readonly attribute USVString baseURI;

  readonly attribute boolean isConnected;
  readonly attribute Document? ownerDocument;
  Node getRootNode(optional GetRootNodeOptions options = {});
  readonly attribute Node? parentNode;
  readonly attribute Element? parentElement;
  boolean hasChildNodes();
  [SameObject] readonly attribute NodeList childNodes;
  readonly attribute Node? firstChild;
  readonly attribute Node? lastChild;
  readonly attribute Node? previousSibling;
  readonly attribute Node? nextSibling;

  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString? nodeValue;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString? textContent;
  [CEReactions] undefined normalize();

  [CEReactions, NewObject] Node cloneNode(optional boolean deep = false);
  boolean isEqualNode(Node? otherNode);
  boolean isSameNode(Node? otherNode); // historical alias of ===

  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_DISCONNECTED = 0x01;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING = 0x02;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING = 0x04;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINS = 0x08;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINED_BY = 0x10;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_IMPLEMENTATION_SPECIFIC = 0x20;
  unsigned short compareDocumentPosition(Node other);
  boolean contains(Node? other);

  DOMString? lookupPrefix(DOMString? namespace);
  DOMString? lookupNamespaceURI(DOMString? prefix);
  boolean isDefaultNamespace(DOMString? namespace);

  [CEReactions] Node insertBefore(Node node, Node? child);
  [CEReactions] Node appendChild(Node node);
  [CEReactions] Node replaceChild(Node node, Node child);
  [CEReactions] Node removeChild(Node child);
};

dictionary GetRootNodeOptions {
  boolean composed = false;
};

Node is an abstract interface and does not exist as node. It is used by all nodes (Document, DocumentType, DocumentFragment, Element, Text, ProcessingInstruction, and Comment).

Each node has an associated node document, set upon creation, that is a document.

A node’s node document can be changed by the adopt algorithm.

A node’s get the parent algorithm, given an event, returns the node’s assigned slot, if node is assigned, and node’s parent otherwise.

Each node also has a registered observer list.


node . nodeType
Returns the type of node, represented by a number from the following list:
Node . ELEMENT_NODE (1)
node is an element.
Node . TEXT_NODE (3)
node is a Text node.
Node . CDATA_SECTION_NODE (4)
node is a CDATASection node.
Node . PROCESSING_INSTRUCTION_NODE (7)
node is a ProcessingInstruction node.
Node . COMMENT_NODE (8)
node is a Comment node.
Node . DOCUMENT_NODE (9)
node is a document.
Node . DOCUMENT_TYPE_NODE (10)
node is a doctype.
Node . DOCUMENT_FRAGMENT_NODE (11)
node is a DocumentFragment node.
node . nodeName
Returns a string appropriate for the type of node, as follows:
Element
Its HTML-uppercased qualified name.
Attr
Its qualified name.
Text
"#text".
CDATASection
"#cdata-section".
ProcessingInstruction
Its target.
Comment
"#comment".
Document
"#document".
DocumentType
Its name.
DocumentFragment
"#document-fragment".

Node/nodeType

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1.1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE6+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The nodeType attribute’s getter, when invoked, must return the first matching statement, switching on this:

Element
ELEMENT_NODE (1)
Attr
ATTRIBUTE_NODE (2);
Text
TEXT_NODE (3);
CDATASection
CDATA_SECTION_NODE (4);
ProcessingInstruction
PROCESSING_INSTRUCTION_NODE (7);
Comment
COMMENT_NODE (8);
Document
DOCUMENT_NODE (9);
DocumentType
DOCUMENT_TYPE_NODE (10);
DocumentFragment
DOCUMENT_FRAGMENT_NODE (11).

Node/nodeName

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The nodeName attribute’s getter, when invoked, must return the first matching statement, switching on this:

Element
Its HTML-uppercased qualified name.
Attr
Its qualified name.
Text
"#text".
CDATASection
"#cdata-section".
ProcessingInstruction
Its target.
Comment
"#comment".
Document
"#document".
DocumentType
Its name.
DocumentFragment
"#document-fragment".

node . baseURI
Returns node’s node document’s document base URL.

Node/baseURI

In all current engines.

Firefox1+SafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for Android4+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The baseURI attribute’s getter must return node document’s document base URL, serialized.


node . isConnected

Returns true if node is connected and false otherwise.

node . ownerDocument
Returns the node document. Returns null for documents.
node . getRootNode()
Returns node’s root.
node . getRootNode({ composed:true })
Returns node’s shadow-including root.
node . parentNode
Returns the parent.
node . parentElement
Returns the parent element.
node . hasChildNodes()
Returns whether node has children.
node . childNodes
Returns the children.
node . firstChild
Returns the first child.
node . lastChild
Returns the last child.
node . previousSibling
Returns the previous sibling.
node . nextSibling
Returns the next sibling.

Node/isConnected

In all current engines.

Firefox53+Safari10.1+Chrome51+
Opera38+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIENone
Firefox for Android45+iOS Safari10.3+Chrome for Android51+Android WebView51+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

The isConnected attribute’s getter must return true, if this is connected, and false otherwise.

Node/ownerDocument

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The ownerDocument attribute’s getter must return null, if this is a document, and this’s node document otherwise.

The node document of a document is that document itself. All nodes have a node document at all times.

Node/getRootNode

In all current engines.

Firefox53+Safari10.1+Chrome54+
Opera41+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIENone
Firefox for Android53+iOS Safari10.3+Chrome for Android54+Android WebView54+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

The getRootNode(options) method, when invoked, must return this’s shadow-including root if options’s composed is true, and this’s root otherwise.

Node/parentNode

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1.1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE5.5+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The parentNode attribute’s getter must return this’s parent.

An Attr node has no parent.

Node/parentElement

In all current engines.

Firefox9+Safari1.1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android9+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The parentElement attribute’s getter must return this’s parent element.

Node/hasChildNodes

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The hasChildNodes() method, when invoked, must return true if this has children, and false otherwise.

Node/childNodes

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1.2+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE5+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The childNodes attribute’s getter must return a NodeList rooted at this matching only children.

Node/firstChild

In all current engines.

Firefox1+SafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IEYes
Firefox for Android4+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The firstChild attribute’s getter must return this’s first child.

Node/lastChild

In all current engines.

Firefox1+SafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IEYes
Firefox for Android45+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The lastChild attribute’s getter must return this’s last child.

Node/previousSibling

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE5.5+
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The previousSibling attribute’s getter must return this’s previous sibling.

An Attr node has no siblings.

Node/nextSibling

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1.1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE5.5+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The nextSibling attribute’s getter must return this’s next sibling.


Node/nodeValue

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The nodeValue attribute must return the following, depending on this:

Attr
this’s value.
Text
ProcessingInstruction
Comment
this’s data.
Any other node
Null.

The nodeValue attribute must, on setting, if the new value is null, act as if it was the empty string instead, and then do as described below, depending on this:

Attr

Set an existing attribute value with this and new value.

Text
ProcessingInstruction
Comment

Replace data with node this, offset 0, count this’s length, and data new value.

Any other node

Do nothing.

Node/textContent

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari3+Chrome1+
Opera9+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The textContent attribute’s getter must return the following, switching on this:

DocumentFragment
Element
The descendant text content of this.
Attr
this’s value.
Text
ProcessingInstruction
Comment
this’s data.
Any other node
Null.

To string replace all with a string string within a node parent, run these steps:

  1. Let node be null.

  2. If string is not the empty string, then set node to a new Text node whose data is string and node document is parent’s node document.

  3. Replace all with node within parent.

The textContent attribute’s setter must, if the given value is null, act as if it was the empty string instead, and then do as described below, switching on this:

DocumentFragment
Element

String replace all with the given value within this.

Attr

Set an existing attribute value with this and new value.

Text
ProcessingInstruction
Comment

Replace data with node this, offset 0, count this’s length, and data the given value.

Any other node

Do nothing.


node . normalize()
Removes empty exclusive Text nodes and concatenates the data of remaining contiguous exclusive Text nodes into the first of their nodes.

Node/normalize

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The normalize() method, when invoked, must run these steps for each descendant exclusive Text node node of this:

  1. Let length be node’s length.
  2. If length is zero, then remove node and continue with the next exclusive Text node, if any.
  3. Let data be the concatenation of the data of node’s contiguous exclusive Text nodes (excluding itself), in tree order.
  4. Replace data with node node, offset length, count 0, and data data.
  5. Let currentNode be node’s next sibling.
  6. While currentNode is an exclusive Text node:

    1. For each live range whose start node is currentNode, add length to its start offset and set its start node to node.

    2. For each live range whose end node is currentNode, add length to its end offset and set its end node to node.

    3. For each live range whose start node is currentNode’s parent and start offset is currentNode’s index, set its start node to node and its start offset to length.

    4. For each live range whose end node is currentNode’s parent and end offset is currentNode’s index, set its end node to node and its end offset to length.

    5. Add currentNode’s length to length.

    6. Set currentNode to its next sibling.

  7. Remove node’s contiguous exclusive Text nodes (excluding itself), in tree order.

node . cloneNode([deep = false])
Returns a copy of node. If deep is true, the copy also includes the node’s descendants.
node . isEqualNode(otherNode)
Returns whether node and otherNode have the same properties.

Specifications may define cloning steps for all or some nodes. The algorithm is passed copy, node, document, and an optional clone children flag, as indicated in the clone algorithm.

HTML defines cloning steps for script and input elements. SVG ought to do the same for its script elements, but does not call this out at the moment.

To clone a node, with an optional document and clone children flag, run these steps:

  1. If document is not given, let document be node’s node document.

  2. If node is an element, then:

    1. Let copy be the result of creating an element, given document, node’s local name, node’s namespace, node’s namespace prefix, and node’s is value, with the synchronous custom elements flag unset.

    2. For each attribute in node’s attribute list:

      1. Let copyAttribute be a clone of attribute.

      2. Append copyAttribute to copy.

  3. Otherwise, let copy be a node that implements the same interfaces as node, and fulfills these additional requirements, switching on node:

    Document

    Set copy’s encoding, content type, URL, origin, type, and mode, to those of node.

    DocumentType

    Set copy’s name, public ID, and system ID, to those of node.

    Attr

    Set copy’s namespace, namespace prefix, local name, and value, to those of node.

    Text
    Comment
    Set copy’s data, to that of node.
    ProcessingInstruction
    Set copy’s target and data to those of node.
    Any other node
  4. Set copy’s node document and document to copy, if copy is a document, and set copy’s node document to document otherwise.

  5. Run any cloning steps defined for node in other applicable specifications and pass copy, node, document and the clone children flag if set, as parameters.
  6. If the clone children flag is set, clone all the children of node and append them to copy, with document as specified and the clone children flag being set.
  7. Return copy.

Node/cloneNode

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1.1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE6+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The cloneNode(deep) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If this is a shadow root, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

  2. Return a clone of this, with the clone children flag set if deep is true.

A node A equals a node B if all of the following conditions are true:

Node/isEqualNode

In all current engines.

Firefox2+SafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The isEqualNode(otherNode) method, when invoked, must return true if otherNode is non-null and this equals otherNode, and false otherwise.

Node/isSameNode

In all current engines.

Firefox48+SafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for Android48+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The isSameNode(otherNode) method, when invoked, must return true if otherNode is this, and false otherwise.


node . compareDocumentPosition(other)
Returns a bitmask indicating the position of other relative to node. These are the bits that can be set:
Node . DOCUMENT_POSITION_DISCONNECTED (1)
Set when node and other are not in the same tree.
Node . DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING (2)
Set when other is preceding node.
Node . DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING (4)
Set when other is following node.
Node . DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINS (8)
Set when other is an ancestor of node.
Node . DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINED_BY (16, 10 in hexadecimal)
Set when other is a descendant of node.
node . contains(other)
Returns true if other is an inclusive descendant of node, and false otherwise.

These are the constants compareDocumentPosition() returns as mask:

Node/compareDocumentPosition

In all current engines.

Firefox9+SafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android9+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The compareDocumentPosition(other) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If this is other, then return zero.

  2. Let node1 be other and node2 be this.

  3. Let attr1 and attr2 be null.

  4. If node1 is an attribute, then set attr1 to node1 and node1 to attr1’s element.

  5. If node2 is an attribute, then:

    1. Set attr2 to node2 and node2 to attr2’s element.

    2. If attr1 and node1 are non-null, and node2 is node1, then:

      1. For each attr in node2’s attribute list:

        1. If attr equals attr1, then return the result of adding DOCUMENT_POSITION_IMPLEMENTATION_SPECIFIC and DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING.

        2. If attr equals attr2, then return the result of adding DOCUMENT_POSITION_IMPLEMENTATION_SPECIFIC and DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING.

  6. If node1 or node2 is null, or node1’s root is not node2’s root, then return the result of adding DOCUMENT_POSITION_DISCONNECTED, DOCUMENT_POSITION_IMPLEMENTATION_SPECIFIC, and either DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING or DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING, with the constraint that this is to be consistent, together.

    Whether to return DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING or DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING is typically implemented via pointer comparison. In JavaScript implementations a cached Math.random() value can be used.

  7. If node1 is an ancestor of node2 and attr1 is null, or node1 is node2 and attr2 is non-null, then return the result of adding DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINS to DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING.

  8. If node1 is a descendant of node2 and attr2 is null, or node1 is node2 and attr1 is non-null, then return the result of adding DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINED_BY to DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING.

  9. If node1 is preceding node2, then return DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING.

    Due to the way attributes are handled in this algorithm this results in a node’s attributes counting as preceding that node’s children, despite attributes not participating in a tree.

  10. Return DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING.

Node/contains

In all current engines.

Firefox9+Safari1.1+Chrome16+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android9+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView37+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The contains(other) method, when invoked, must return true if other is an inclusive descendant of this, and false otherwise (including when other is null).


To locate a namespace prefix for an element using namespace, run these steps:

  1. If element’s namespace is namespace and its namespace prefix is non-null, then return its namespace prefix.

  2. If element has an attribute whose namespace prefix is "xmlns" and value is namespace, then return element’s first such attribute’s local name.

  3. If element’s parent element is not null, then return the result of running locate a namespace prefix on that element using namespace.

  4. Return null.

To locate a namespace for a node using prefix, switch on node:

Element
  1. If its namespace is non-null and its namespace prefix is prefix, then return namespace.

  2. If it has an attribute whose namespace is the XMLNS namespace, namespace prefix is "xmlns", and local name is prefix, or if prefix is null and it has an attribute whose namespace is the XMLNS namespace, namespace prefix is null, and local name is "xmlns", then return its value if it is not the empty string, and null otherwise.

  3. If its parent element is null, then return null.

  4. Return the result of running locate a namespace on its parent element using prefix.

Document
  1. If its document element is null, then return null.

  2. Return the result of running locate a namespace on its document element using prefix.

DocumentType
DocumentFragment

Return null.

Attr
  1. If its element is null, then return null.

  2. Return the result of running locate a namespace on its element using prefix.

Any other node
  1. If its parent element is null, then return null.

  2. Return the result of running locate a namespace on its parent element using prefix.

The lookupPrefix(namespace) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If namespace is null or the empty string, then return null.

  2. Switch on this:

    Element

    Return the result of locating a namespace prefix for it using namespace.

    Document

    Return the result of locating a namespace prefix for its document element, if its document element is non-null, and null otherwise.

    DocumentType
    DocumentFragment

    Return null.

    Attr

    Return the result of locating a namespace prefix for its element, if its element is non-null, and null otherwise.

    Any other node

    Return the result of locating a namespace prefix for its parent element, if its parent element is non-null, and null otherwise.

Node/lookupNamespaceURI

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The lookupNamespaceURI(prefix) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If prefix is the empty string, then set it to null.

  2. Return the result of running locate a namespace for this using prefix.

Node/isDefaultNamespace

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The isDefaultNamespace(namespace) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If namespace is the empty string, then set it to null.

  2. Let defaultNamespace be the result of running locate a namespace for this using null.

  3. Return true if defaultNamespace is the same as namespace, and false otherwise.


Node/insertBefore

In all current engines.

Firefox3+Safari1.1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The insertBefore(node, child) method, when invoked, must return the result of pre-inserting node into this before child.

Node/appendChild

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1.1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE5+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The appendChild(node) method, when invoked, must return the result of appending node to this.

Node/replaceChild

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1.1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The replaceChild(node, child) method, when invoked, must return the result of replacing child with node within this.

Node/removeChild

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1.1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE5+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The removeChild(child) method, when invoked, must return the result of pre-removing child from this.


The list of elements with qualified name qualifiedName for a node root is the HTMLCollection returned by the following algorithm:

  1. If qualifiedName is "*" (U+002A), return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches only descendant elements.

  2. Otherwise, if root’s node document is an HTML document, return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches the following descendant elements:

  3. Otherwise, return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements whose qualified name is qualifiedName.

When invoked with the same argument, and as long as root’s node document’s type has not changed, the same HTMLCollection object may be returned as returned by an earlier call.

The list of elements with namespace namespace and local name localName for a node root is the HTMLCollection returned by the following algorithm:

  1. If namespace is the empty string, set it to null.
  2. If both namespace and localName are "*" (U+002A), return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements.
  3. Otherwise, if namespace is "*" (U+002A), return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements whose local name is localName.
  4. Otherwise, if localName is "*" (U+002A), return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements whose namespace is namespace.
  5. Otherwise, return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements whose namespace is namespace and local name is localName.

When invoked with the same arguments, the same HTMLCollection object may be returned as returned by an earlier call.

The list of elements with class names classNames for a node root is the HTMLCollection returned by the following algorithm:

  1. Let classes be the result of running the ordered set parser on classNames.
  2. If classes is the empty set, return an empty HTMLCollection.
  3. Return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements that have all their classes in classes.

    The comparisons for the classes must be done in an ASCII case-insensitive manner if root’s node document’s mode is "quirks", and in an identical to manner otherwise.

When invoked with the same argument, the same HTMLCollection object may be returned as returned by an earlier call.

4.5. Interface Document

Document

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1+Chrome1+
Opera3+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE4+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

XMLDocument

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari10+Chrome34+
Opera21+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)18IENone
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari10+Chrome for Android34+Android WebView37+Samsung Internet2.0+Opera Mobile21+
[Exposed=Window]
interface Document : Node {
  constructor();

  [SameObject] readonly attribute DOMImplementation implementation;
  readonly attribute USVString URL;
  readonly attribute USVString documentURI;
  readonly attribute DOMString compatMode;
  readonly attribute DOMString characterSet;
  readonly attribute DOMString charset; // historical alias of .characterSet
  readonly attribute DOMString inputEncoding; // historical alias of .characterSet
  readonly attribute DOMString contentType;

  readonly attribute DocumentType? doctype;
  readonly attribute Element? documentElement;
  HTMLCollection getElementsByTagName(DOMString qualifiedName);
  HTMLCollection getElementsByTagNameNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);
  HTMLCollection getElementsByClassName(DOMString classNames);

  [CEReactions, NewObject] Element createElement(DOMString localName, optional (DOMString or ElementCreationOptions) options = {});
  [CEReactions, NewObject] Element createElementNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString qualifiedName, optional (DOMString or ElementCreationOptions) options = {});
  [NewObject] DocumentFragment createDocumentFragment();
  [NewObject] Text createTextNode(DOMString data);
  [NewObject] CDATASection createCDATASection(DOMString data);
  [NewObject] Comment createComment(DOMString data);
  [NewObject] ProcessingInstruction createProcessingInstruction(DOMString target, DOMString data);

  [CEReactions, NewObject] Node importNode(Node node, optional boolean deep = false);
  [CEReactions] Node adoptNode(Node node);

  [NewObject] Attr createAttribute(DOMString localName);
  [NewObject] Attr createAttributeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString qualifiedName);

  [NewObject] Event createEvent(DOMString interface); // historical

  [NewObject] Range createRange();

  // NodeFilter.SHOW_ALL = 0xFFFFFFFF
  [NewObject] NodeIterator createNodeIterator(Node root, optional unsigned long whatToShow = 0xFFFFFFFF, optional NodeFilter? filter = null);
  [NewObject] TreeWalker createTreeWalker(Node root, optional unsigned long whatToShow = 0xFFFFFFFF, optional NodeFilter? filter = null);
};

[Exposed=Window]
interface XMLDocument : Document {};

dictionary ElementCreationOptions {
  DOMString is;
};

Document nodes are simply known as documents.

Each document has an associated encoding (an encoding), content type (a string), URL (a URL), origin (an origin), type ("xml" or "html"), and mode ("no-quirks", "quirks", or "limited-quirks"). [ENCODING] [URL] [HTML]

Unless stated otherwise, a document’s encoding is the utf-8 encoding, content type is "application/xml", URL is "about:blank", origin is an opaque origin, type is "xml", and its mode is "no-quirks".

A document is said to be an XML document if its type is "xml", and an HTML document otherwise. Whether a document is an HTML document or an XML document affects the behavior of certain APIs.

A document is said to be in no-quirks mode if its mode is "no-quirks", quirks mode if its mode is "quirks", and limited-quirks mode if its mode is "limited-quirks".

The mode is only ever changed from the default for documents created by the HTML parser based on the presence, absence, or value of the DOCTYPE string, and by a new browsing context (initial "about:blank"). [HTML]

No-quirks mode was originally known as "standards mode" and limited-quirks mode was once known as "almost standards mode". They have been renamed because their details are now defined by standards. (And because Ian Hickson vetoed their original names on the basis that they are nonsensical.)

A document’s get the parent algorithm, given an event, returns null if event’s type attribute value is "load" or document does not have a browsing context, and the document’s relevant global object otherwise.


document = new Document()
Returns a new document.
document . implementation
Returns document’s DOMImplementation object.
document . URL
document . documentURI
Returns document’s URL.
document . compatMode
Returns the string "BackCompat" if document’s mode is "quirks", and "CSS1Compat" otherwise.
document . characterSet
Returns document’s encoding.
document . contentType
Returns document’s content type.

Document/Document

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome60+
Opera47+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)18IENone
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for Android60+Android WebView60+Samsung Internet8.0+Opera Mobile44+

The Document() constructor, when invoked, must return a new document whose origin is the origin of current global object’s associated Document. [HTML]

Unlike createDocument(), this constructor does not return an XMLDocument object, but a document (Document object).

Document/implementation

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The implementation attribute’s getter must return the DOMImplementation object that is associated with the document.

Document/URL

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IEYes
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

Document/documentURI

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)17+IEYes
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The URL attribute’s getter and documentURI attribute’s getter must return the URL, serialized.

Document/compatMode

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome43+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for Android43+Android WebView43+Samsung Internet4.0+Opera MobileYes

The compatMode attribute’s getter must return "BackCompat" if this’s mode is "quirks", and "CSS1Compat" otherwise.

Document/characterSet

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for Android45+Android WebView45+Samsung Internet5.0+Opera MobileYes

The characterSet attribute’s getter, charset attribute’s getter, and inputEncoding attribute’s getter, must return this’s encoding’s name.

Document/contentType

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome43+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)17+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for Android43+Android WebView43+Samsung Internet4.0+Opera MobileYes

The contentType attribute’s getter must return the content type.


document . doctype
Returns the doctype or null if there is none.
document . documentElement
Returns the document element.
collection = document . getElementsByTagName(qualifiedName)

If qualifiedName is "*" returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements.

Otherwise, returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements whose qualified name is qualifiedName. (Matches case-insensitively against elements in the HTML namespace within an HTML document.)

collection = document . getElementsByTagNameNS(namespace, localName)
If namespace and localName are "*" returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements.

If only namespace is "*" returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements whose local name is localName.

If only localName is "*" returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements whose namespace is namespace.

Otherwise, returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements whose namespace is namespace and local name is localName.

collection = document . getElementsByClassName(classNames)
collection = element . getElementsByClassName(classNames)
Returns a HTMLCollection of the elements in the object on which the method was invoked (a document or an element) that have all the classes given by classNames. The classNames argument is interpreted as a space-separated list of classes.

Document/doctype

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The doctype attribute’s getter must return the child of the document that is a doctype, and null otherwise.

Document/documentElement

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE5+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The documentElement attribute’s getter must return the document element.

Document/getElementsByTagName

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1+Chrome1+
Opera5.1+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE5+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The getElementsByTagName(qualifiedName) method, when invoked, must return the list of elements with qualified name qualifiedName for this.

Thus, in an HTML document, document.getElementsByTagName("FOO") will match <FOO> elements that are not in the HTML namespace, and <foo> elements that are in the HTML namespace, but not <FOO> elements that are in the HTML namespace.

Document/getElementsByTagNameNS

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The getElementsByTagNameNS(namespace, localName) method, when invoked, must return the list of elements with namespace namespace and local name localName for this.

Document/getElementsByClassName

In all current engines.

Firefox4+Safari3.1+Chrome1+
Opera9.5+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari2+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The getElementsByClassName(classNames) method, when invoked, must return the list of elements with class names classNames for this.

Given the following XHTML fragment:
<div id="example">
  <p id="p1" class="aaa bbb"/>
  <p id="p2" class="aaa ccc"/>
  <p id="p3" class="bbb ccc"/>
</div>

A call to document.getElementById("example").getElementsByClassName("aaa") would return a HTMLCollection with the two paragraphs p1 and p2 in it.

A call to getElementsByClassName("ccc bbb") would only return one node, however, namely p3. A call to document.getElementById("example").getElementsByClassName("bbb  ccc ") would return the same thing.

A call to getElementsByClassName("aaa,bbb") would return no nodes; none of the elements above are in the aaa,bbb class.


element = document . createElement(localName [, options])

Returns an element with localName as local name (if document is an HTML document, localName gets lowercased). The element’s namespace is the HTML namespace when document is an HTML document or document’s content type is "application/xhtml+xml", and null otherwise.

If localName does not match the Name production an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException will be thrown.

When supplied, options’s is can be used to create a customized built-in element.

element = document . createElementNS(namespace, qualifiedName [, options])

Returns an element with namespace namespace. Its namespace prefix will be everything before ":" (U+003E) in qualifiedName or null. Its local name will be everything after ":" (U+003E) in qualifiedName or qualifiedName.

If localName does not match the Name production an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException will be thrown.

If one of the following conditions is true a "NamespaceError" DOMException will be thrown:

When supplied, options’s is can be used to create a customized built-in element.

documentFragment = document . createDocumentFragment()
Returns a DocumentFragment node.
text = document . createTextNode(data)
Returns a Text node whose data is data.
text = document . createCDATASection(data)
Returns a CDATASection node whose data is data.
comment = document . createComment(data)
Returns a Comment node whose data is data.
processingInstruction = document . createProcessingInstruction(target, data)
Returns a ProcessingInstruction node whose target is target and data is data. If target does not match the Name production an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException will be thrown. If data contains "?>" an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException will be thrown.

The element interface for any name and namespace is Element, unless stated otherwise.

The HTML Standard will e.g. define that for html and the HTML namespace, the HTMLHtmlElement interface is used. [HTML]

Document/createElement

In all current engines.

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Opera6+Edge79+
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The createElement(localName, options) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If localName does not match the Name production, then throw an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException.

  2. If this is an HTML document, then set localName to localName in ASCII lowercase.

  3. Let is be null.

  4. If options is a dictionary and options’s is is present, then set is to it.

  5. Let namespace be the HTML namespace, if this is an HTML document or this’s content type is "application/xhtml+xml", and null otherwise.

  6. Return the result of creating an element given this, localName, namespace, null, is, and with the synchronous custom elements flag set.

The internal createElementNS steps, given document, namespace, qualifiedName, and options, are as follows:

  1. Let namespace, prefix, and localName be the result of passing namespace and qualifiedName to validate and extract.

  2. Let is be null.

  3. If options is a dictionary and options’s is is present, then set is to it.

  4. Return the result of creating an element given document, localName, namespace, prefix, is, and with the synchronous custom elements flag set.

Document/createElementNS

In all current engines.

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OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
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The createElementNS(namespace, qualifiedName, options) method, when invoked, must return the result of running the internal createElementNS steps, given this, namespace, qualifiedName, and options.

createElement() and createElementNS()'s options parameter is allowed to be a string for web compatibility.

Document/createDocumentFragment

In all current engines.

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OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IEYes
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The createDocumentFragment() method, when invoked, must return a new DocumentFragment node with its node document set to this.

Document/createTextNode

In all current engines.

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Opera7+Edge79+
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The createTextNode(data) method, when invoked, must return a new Text node with its data set to data and node document set to this.

No check is performed that data consists of characters that match the Char production.

Document/createCDATASection

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The createCDATASection(data) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If this is an HTML document, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

  2. If data contains the string "]]>", then throw an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException.

  3. Return a new CDATASection node with its data set to data and node document set to this.

Document/createComment

In all current engines.

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OperaYesEdge79+
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The createComment(data) method, when invoked, must return a new Comment node with its data set to data and node document set to this.

No check is performed that data consists of characters that match the Char production or that it contains two adjacent hyphens or ends with a hyphen.

Document/createProcessingInstruction

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The createProcessingInstruction(target, data) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If target does not match the Name production, then throw an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException.
  2. If data contains the string "?>", then throw an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException.
  3. Return a new ProcessingInstruction node, with target set to target, data set to data, and node document set to this.

No check is performed that target contains "xml" or ":", or that data contains characters that match the Char production.


clone = document . importNode(node [, deep = false])
Returns a copy of node. If deep is true, the copy also includes the node’s descendants.

If node is a document or a shadow root, throws a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

node = document . adoptNode(node)
Moves node from another document and returns it.

If node is a document, throws a "NotSupportedError" DOMException or, if node is a shadow root, throws a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

Document/importNode

In all current engines.

Firefox4+SafariYesChrome1+
Opera9+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
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The importNode(node, deep) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If node is a document or shadow root, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

  2. Return a clone of node, with this and the clone children flag set if deep is true.

Specifications may define adopting steps for all or some nodes. The algorithm is passed node and oldDocument, as indicated in the adopt algorithm.

To adopt a node into a document, run these steps:

  1. Let oldDocument be node’s node document.

  2. If node’s parent is non-null, then remove node.

  3. If document is not oldDocument, then:

    1. For each inclusiveDescendant in node’s shadow-including inclusive descendants:

      1. Set inclusiveDescendant’s node document to document.

      2. If inclusiveDescendant is an element, then set the node document of each attribute in inclusiveDescendant’s attribute list to document.

    2. For each inclusiveDescendant in node’s shadow-including inclusive descendants that is custom, enqueue a custom element callback reaction with inclusiveDescendant, callback name "adoptedCallback", and an argument list containing oldDocument and document.

    3. For each inclusiveDescendant in node’s shadow-including inclusive descendants, in shadow-including tree order, run the adopting steps with inclusiveDescendant and oldDocument.

Document/adoptNode

In all current engines.

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OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The adoptNode(node) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If node is a document, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

  2. If node is a shadow root, then throw a "HierarchyRequestError" DOMException.

  3. If node is a DocumentFragment node whose host is non-null, then return.

  4. Adopt node into this.

  5. Return node.


Document/createAttribute

In all current engines.

Firefox44+SafariYesChrome1+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IEYes
Firefox for Android44+iOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The createAttribute(localName) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If localName does not match the Name production in XML, then throw an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException.

  2. If this is an HTML document, then set localName to localName in ASCII lowercase.
  3. Return a new attribute whose local name is localName and node document is this.

The createAttributeNS(namespace, qualifiedName) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let namespace, prefix, and localName be the result of passing namespace and qualifiedName to validate and extract.

  2. Return a new attribute whose namespace is namespace, namespace prefix is prefix, local name is localName, and node document is this.


Document/createEvent

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari1+Chrome1+
Opera7+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The createEvent(interface) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let constructor be null.

  2. If interface is an ASCII case-insensitive match for any of the strings in the first column in the following table, then set constructor to the interface in the second column on the same row as the matching string:

    String Interface Notes
    "beforeunloadevent" BeforeUnloadEvent [HTML]
    "compositionevent" CompositionEvent [UIEVENTS]
    "customevent" CustomEvent
    "devicemotionevent" DeviceMotionEvent [DEVICE-ORIENTATION]
    "deviceorientationevent" DeviceOrientationEvent
    "dragevent" DragEvent [HTML]
    "event" Event
    "events"
    "focusevent" FocusEvent [UIEVENTS]
    "hashchangeevent" HashChangeEvent [HTML]
    "htmlevents" Event
    "keyboardevent" KeyboardEvent [UIEVENTS]
    "messageevent" MessageEvent [HTML]
    "mouseevent" MouseEvent [UIEVENTS]
    "mouseevents"
    "storageevent" StorageEvent [HTML]
    "svgevents" Event
    "textevent" CompositionEvent [UIEVENTS]
    "touchevent" TouchEvent [TOUCH-EVENTS]
    "uievent" UIEvent [UIEVENTS]
    "uievents"
  3. If constructor is null, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

  4. If the interface indicated by constructor is not exposed on the relevant global object of this, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

    Typically user agents disable support for touch events in some configurations, in which case this clause would be triggered for the interface TouchEvent.

  5. Let event be the result of creating an event given constructor.

  6. Initialize event’s type attribute to the empty string.

  7. Initialize event’s timeStamp attribute to a DOMHighResTimeStamp representing the high resolution time from the time origin to now.

  8. Initialize event’s isTrusted attribute to false.

  9. Unset event’s initialized flag.

  10. Return event.

Event constructors ought to be used instead.


Document/createRange

In all current engines.

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OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The createRange() method, when invoked, must return a new live range with (this, 0) as its start an end.

The Range() constructor can be used instead.


Document/createNodeIterator

In all current engines.

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Opera9+Edge79+
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The createNodeIterator(root, whatToShow, filter) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let iterator be a new NodeIterator object.

  2. Set iterator’s root and iterator’s reference to root.

  3. Set iterator’s pointer before reference to true.

  4. Set iterator’s whatToShow to whatToShow.

  5. Set iterator’s filter to filter.

  6. Return iterator.

Document/createTreeWalker

In all current engines.

Firefox2+Safari3+Chrome1+
Opera9+Edge79+
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The createTreeWalker(root, whatToShow, filter) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let walker be a new TreeWalker object.

  2. Set walker’s root and walker’s current to root.

  3. Set walker’s whatToShow to whatToShow.

  4. Set walker’s filter to filter.

  5. Return walker.

4.5.1. Interface DOMImplementation

User agents must create a DOMImplementation object whenever a document is created and associate it with that document.

DOMImplementation

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OperaYesEdgeYes
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Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes
[Exposed=Window]
interface DOMImplementation {
  [NewObject] DocumentType createDocumentType(DOMString qualifiedName, DOMString publicId, DOMString systemId);
  [NewObject] XMLDocument createDocument(DOMString? namespace, [LegacyNullToEmptyString] DOMString qualifiedName, optional DocumentType? doctype = null);
  [NewObject] Document createHTMLDocument(optional DOMString title);

  boolean hasFeature(); // useless; always returns true
};
doctype = document . implementation . createDocumentType(qualifiedName, publicId, systemId)
Returns a doctype, with the given qualifiedName, publicId, and systemId. If qualifiedName does not match the Name production, an "InvalidCharacterError" DOMException is thrown, and if it does not match the QName production, a "NamespaceError" DOMException is thrown.
doc = document . implementation . createDocument(namespace, qualifiedName [, doctype = null])
Returns an XMLDocument, with a document element whose local name is qualifiedName and whose namespace is namespace (unless qualifiedName is the empty string), and with doctype, if it is given, as its doctype.

This method throws the same exceptions as the createElementNS() method, when invoked with namespace and qualifiedName.

doc = document . implementation . createHTMLDocument([title])
Returns a document, with a basic tree already constructed including a title element, unless the title argument is omitted.

DOMImplementation/createDocumentType

In all current engines.

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OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The createDocumentType(qualifiedName, publicId, systemId) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Validate qualifiedName.

  2. Return a new doctype, with qualifiedName as its name, publicId as its public ID, and systemId as its system ID, and with its node document set to the associated document of this.

No check is performed that publicId code points match the PubidChar production or that systemId does not contain both a '"' and a "'".

DOMImplementation/createDocument

In all current engines.

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OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The createDocument(namespace, qualifiedName, doctype) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let document be a new XMLDocument.

  2. Let element be null.

  3. If qualifiedName is not the empty string, then set element to the result of running the internal createElementNS steps, given document, namespace, qualifiedName, and an empty dictionary.

  4. If doctype is non-null, append doctype to document.

  5. If element is non-null, append element to document.

  6. document’s origin is this’s associated document’s origin.

  7. document’s content type is determined by namespace:

    HTML namespace
    application/xhtml+xml
    SVG namespace
    image/svg+xml
    Any other namespace
    application/xml
  8. Return document.

DOMImplementation/createHTMLDocument

In all current engines.

Firefox4+SafariYesChromeYes
OperaYesEdgeYes
Edge (Legacy)12+IE9+
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for AndroidYesAndroid WebViewYesSamsung InternetYesOpera MobileYes

The createHTMLDocument(title) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let doc be a new document that is an HTML document.

  2. Set doc’s content type to "text/html".

  3. Append a new doctype, with "html" as its name and with its node document set to doc, to doc.

  4. Append the result of creating an element given doc, html, and the HTML namespace, to doc.

  5. Append the result of creating an element given doc, head, and the HTML namespace, to the html element created earlier.

  6. If title is given:

    1. Append the result of creating an element given doc, title, and the HTML namespace, to the head element created earlier.

    2. Append a new Text node, with its data set to title (which could be the empty string) and its node document set to doc, to the title element created earlier.

  7. Append the result of creating an element given doc, body, and the HTML namespace, to the html element created earlier.

  8. doc’s origin is this’s associated document’s origin.

  9. Return doc.

The hasFeature() method, when invoked, must return true.

hasFeature() originally would report whether the user agent claimed to support a given DOM feature, but experience proved it was not nearly as reliable or granular as simply checking whether the desired objects, attributes, or methods existed. As such, it is no longer to be used, but continues to exist (and simply returns true) so that old pages don’t stop working.

4.6. Interface DocumentType

DocumentType

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Edge (Legacy)12+IEYes
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[Exposed=Window]
interface DocumentType : Node {
  readonly attribute DOMString name;
  readonly attribute DOMString publicId;
  readonly attribute DOMString systemId;
};

DocumentType nodes are simply known as doctypes.

Doctypes have an associated name, public ID, and system ID.

When a doctype is created, its name is always given. Unless explicitly given when a doctype is created, its public ID and system ID are the empty string.

The name attribute’s getter must return this’s name.

The publicId attribute’s getter must return this’s public ID.

The systemId attribute’s getter must return this’s system ID.

4.7. Interface DocumentFragment

DocumentFragment

In all current engines.

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Opera8+Edge79+
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Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari1+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView1+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile10.1+
[Exposed=Window]
interface DocumentFragment : Node {
  constructor();
};

A DocumentFragment node has an associated host (null or an element in a different node tree). It is null unless otherwise stated.

An object A is a host-including inclusive ancestor of an object B, if either A is an inclusive ancestor of B, or if B’s root has a non-null host and A is a host-including inclusive ancestor of B’s root’s host.

The DocumentFragment node’s host concept is useful for HTML’s template element and for shadow roots, and impacts the pre-insert and replace algorithms.

tree = new DocumentFragment()
Returns a new DocumentFragment node.

DocumentFragment/DocumentFragment

In all current engines.

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Opera15+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)18IENone
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The DocumentFragment() constructor, when invoked, must return a new DocumentFragment node whose node document is current global object’s associated Document.

4.8. Interface ShadowRoot

ShadowRoot

In all current engines.

Firefox63+Safari10.1+Chrome57+
Opera40+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIENone
Firefox for Android63+iOS Safari10.3+Chrome for Android57+Android WebView57+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+
[Exposed=Window]
interface ShadowRoot : DocumentFragment {
  readonly attribute ShadowRootMode mode;
  readonly attribute Element host;
  attribute EventHandler onslotchange;
};

enum ShadowRootMode { "open", "closed" };

ShadowRoot nodes are simply known as shadow roots.

Shadow roots have an associated mode ("open" or "closed").

Shadow roots have an associated delegates focus. It is initially set to false.

Shadow roots’s associated host is never null.

A shadow root’s get the parent algorithm, given an event, returns null if event’s composed flag is unset and shadow root is the root of event’s path’s first struct’s invocation target, and shadow root’s host otherwise.

ShadowRoot/mode

In all current engines.

Firefox63+Safari10.1+Chrome57+
Opera40+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIENone
Firefox for Android63+iOS Safari10.3+Chrome for Android57+Android WebView57+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

The mode attribute’s getter must return this’s mode.

ShadowRoot/host

In all current engines.

Firefox63+Safari10.1+Chrome57+
Opera40+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIENone
Firefox for Android63+iOS Safari10.3+Chrome for Android57+Android WebView57+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

The host attribute’s getter must return this’s host.

The onslotchange attribute is an event handler IDL attribute for the onslotchange event handler, whose event handler event type is slotchange.


In shadow-including tree order is shadow-including preorder, depth-first traversal of a node tree. Shadow-including preorder, depth-first traversal of a node tree tree is preorder, depth-first traversal of tree, with for each shadow host encountered in tree, shadow-including preorder, depth-first traversal of that element’s shadow root’s node tree just after it is encountered.

The shadow-including root of an object is its root’s host’s shadow-including root, if the object’s root is a shadow root, and its root otherwise.

An object A is a shadow-including descendant of an object B, if A is a descendant of B, or A’s root is a shadow root and A’s root’s host is a shadow-including inclusive descendant of B.

A shadow-including inclusive descendant is an object or one of its shadow-including descendants.

An object A is a shadow-including ancestor of an object B, if and only if B is a shadow-including descendant of A.

A shadow-including inclusive ancestor is an object or one of its shadow-including ancestors.

A node A is closed-shadow-hidden from a node B if all of the following conditions are true:

To retarget an object A against an object B, repeat these steps until they return an object:

  1. If one of the following is true

    then return A.

  2. Set A to A’s root’s host.

The retargeting algorithm is used by event dispatch as well as other specifications, such as Fullscreen. [FULLSCREEN]

4.9. Interface Element

Element

In all current engines.

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Opera8+Edge79+
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[Exposed=Window]
interface Element : Node {
  readonly attribute DOMString? namespaceURI;
  readonly attribute DOMString? prefix;
  readonly attribute DOMString localName;
  readonly attribute DOMString tagName;

  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString id;
  [CEReactions] attribute DOMString className;
  [SameObject, PutForwards=value] readonly attribute DOMTokenList classList;
  [CEReactions, Unscopable] attribute DOMString slot;

  boolean hasAttributes();
  [SameObject] readonly attribute NamedNodeMap attributes;
  sequence<DOMString> getAttributeNames();
  DOMString? getAttribute(DOMString qualifiedName);
  DOMString? getAttributeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);
  [CEReactions] undefined setAttribute(DOMString qualifiedName, DOMString value);
  [CEReactions] undefined setAttributeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString qualifiedName, DOMString value);
  [CEReactions] undefined removeAttribute(DOMString qualifiedName);
  [CEReactions] undefined removeAttributeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);
  [CEReactions] boolean toggleAttribute(DOMString qualifiedName, optional boolean force);
  boolean hasAttribute(DOMString qualifiedName);
  boolean hasAttributeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);

  Attr? getAttributeNode(DOMString qualifiedName);
  Attr? getAttributeNodeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);
  [CEReactions] Attr? setAttributeNode(Attr attr);
  [CEReactions] Attr? setAttributeNodeNS(Attr attr);
  [CEReactions] Attr removeAttributeNode(Attr attr);

  ShadowRoot attachShadow(ShadowRootInit init);
  readonly attribute ShadowRoot? shadowRoot;

  Element? closest(DOMString selectors);
  boolean matches(DOMString selectors);
  boolean webkitMatchesSelector(DOMString selectors); // historical alias of .matches

  HTMLCollection getElementsByTagName(DOMString qualifiedName);
  HTMLCollection getElementsByTagNameNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);
  HTMLCollection getElementsByClassName(DOMString classNames);

  [CEReactions] Element? insertAdjacentElement(DOMString where, Element element); // historical
  undefined insertAdjacentText(DOMString where, DOMString data); // historical
};

dictionary ShadowRootInit {
  required ShadowRootMode mode;
  boolean delegatesFocus = false;
};

Element nodes are simply known as elements.

Elements have an associated namespace, namespace prefix, local name, custom element state, custom element definition, is value. When an element is created, all of these values are initialized.

An element’s custom element state is one of "undefined", "failed", "uncustomized", or "custom". An element whose custom element state is "uncustomized" or "custom" is said to be defined. An element whose custom element state is "custom" is said to be custom.

Whether or not an element is defined is used to determine the behavior of the :defined pseudo-class. Whether or not an element is custom is used to determine the behavior of the mutation algorithms. The "failed" state is used to ensure that if a custom element constructor fails to execute correctly the first time, it is not executed again by an upgrade.

The following code illustrates elements in each of these four states:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<script>
  window.customElements.define("sw-rey", class extends HTMLElement {})
  window.customElements.define("sw-finn", class extends HTMLElement {}, { extends: "p" })
  window.customElements.define("sw-kylo", class extends HTMLElement {
    constructor() {
      // super() intentionally omitted for this example
    }
  })
</script>

<!-- "undefined" (not defined, not custom) -->
<sw-han></sw-han>
<p is="sw-luke"></p>
<p is="asdf"></p>

<!-- "failed" (not defined, not custom) -->
<sw-kylo></sw-kylo>

<!-- "uncustomized" (defined, not custom) -->
<p></p>
<asdf></asdf>

<!-- "custom" (defined, custom) -->
<sw-rey></sw-rey>
<p is="sw-finn"></p>

Elements also have an associated shadow root (null or a shadow root). It is null unless otherwise stated. An element is a shadow host if its shadow root is non-null.

An element’s qualified name is its local name if its namespace prefix is null, and its namespace prefix, followed by ":", followed by its local name, otherwise.

An element’s HTML-uppercased qualified name is the return value of these steps:

  1. Let qualifiedName be this’s qualified name.

  2. If this is in the HTML namespace and its node document is an HTML document, then set qualifiedName to qualifiedName in ASCII uppercase.

  3. Return qualifiedName.

User agents could optimize qualified name and HTML-uppercased qualified name by storing them in internal slots.

To create an element, given a document, localName, namespace, and optional prefix, is, and synchronous custom elements flag, run these steps:

  1. If prefix was not given, let prefix be null.

  2. If is was not given, let is be null.

  3. Let result be null.

  4. Let definition be the result of looking up a custom element definition given document, namespace, localName, and is.

  5. If definition is non-null, and definition’s name is not equal to its local name (i.e., definition represents a customized built-in element), then:

    1. Let interface be the element interface for localName and the HTML namespace.

    2. Set result to a new element that implements interface, with no attributes, namespace set to the HTML namespace, namespace prefix set to prefix, local name set to localName, custom element state set to "undefined", custom element definition set to null, is value set to is, and node document set to document.

    3. If the synchronous custom elements flag is set, then run this step while catching any exceptions:

      1. Upgrade element using definition.

      If this step threw an exception, then:

      1. Report the exception.

      2. Set result’s custom element state to "failed".

    4. Otherwise, enqueue a custom element upgrade reaction given result and definition.

  6. Otherwise, if definition is non-null, then:

    1. If the synchronous custom elements flag is set, then run these steps while catching any exceptions:

      1. Let C be definition’s constructor.

      2. Set result to the result of constructing C, with no arguments.

      3. Assert: result’s custom element state and custom element definition are initialized.

      4. Assert: result’s namespace is the HTML namespace.

        IDL enforces that result is an HTMLElement object, which all use the HTML namespace.

      5. If result’s attribute list is not empty, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

      6. If result has children, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

      7. If result’s parent is not null, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

      8. If result’s node document is not document, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

      9. If result’s local name is not equal to localName, then throw a "NotSupportedError" DOMException.

      10. Set result’s namespace prefix to prefix.

      11. Set result’s is value to null.

      If any of these steps threw an exception, then:

      1. Report the exception.

      2. Set result to a new element that implements the HTMLUnknownElement interface, with no attributes, namespace set to the HTML namespace, namespace prefix set to prefix, local name set to localName, custom element state set to "failed", custom element definition set to null, is value set to null, and node document set to document.

    2. Otherwise:

      1. Set result to a new element that implements the HTMLElement interface, with no attributes, namespace set to the HTML namespace, namespace prefix set to prefix, local name set to localName, custom element state set to "undefined", custom element definition set to null, is value set to null, and node document set to document.

      2. Enqueue a custom element upgrade reaction given result and definition.

  7. Otherwise:

    1. Let interface be the element interface for localName and namespace.

    2. Set result to a new element that implements interface, with no attributes, namespace set to namespace, namespace prefix set to prefix, local name set to localName, custom element state set to "uncustomized", custom element definition set to null, is value set to is, and node document set to document.

    3. If namespace is the HTML namespace, and either localName is a valid custom element name or is is non-null, then set result’s custom element state to "undefined".

  8. Return result.

Elements also have an attribute list, which is a list exposed through a NamedNodeMap. Unless explicitly given when an element is created, its attribute list is empty.

An element has an attribute A if its attribute list contains A.

This and other specifications may define attribute change steps for elements. The algorithm is passed element, localName, oldValue, value, and namespace.

To handle attribute changes for an attribute attribute with element, oldValue, and newValue, run these steps:

  1. Queue a mutation record of "attributes" for element with attribute’s local name, attribute’s namespace, oldValue, « », « », null, and null.

  2. If element is custom, then enqueue a custom element callback reaction with element, callback name "attributeChangedCallback", and an argument list containing attribute’s local name, oldValue, newValue, and attribute’s namespace.

  3. Run the attribute change steps with element, attribute’s local name, oldValue, newValue, and attribute’s namespace.

To change an attribute attribute to value, run these steps:

  1. Handle attribute changes for attribute with attribute’s element, attribute’s value, and value.

  2. Set attribute’s value to value.

To append an attribute attribute to an element element, run these steps:

  1. Handle attribute changes for attribute with element, null, and attribute’s value.

  2. Append attribute to element’s attribute list.

  3. Set attribute’s element to element.

To remove an attribute attribute, run these steps:

  1. Handle attribute changes for attribute with attribute’s element, attribute’s value, and null.

  2. Remove attribute from attribute’s element’s attribute list.
  3. Set attribute’s element to null.

To replace an attribute oldAttr with an attribute newAttr, run these steps:

  1. Handle attribute changes for oldAttr with oldAttr’s element, oldAttr’s value, and newAttr’s value.

  2. Replace oldAttr by newAttr in oldAttr’s element’s attribute list.

  3. Set newAttr’s element to oldAttr’s element.

  4. Set oldAttr’s element to null.


To get an attribute by name given a qualifiedName and element element, run these steps:

  1. If element is in the HTML namespace and its node document is an HTML document, then set qualifiedName to qualifiedName in ASCII lowercase.

  2. Return the first attribute in element’s attribute list whose qualified name is qualifiedName, and null otherwise.

To get an attribute by namespace and local name given a namespace, localName, and element element, run these steps:

  1. If namespace is the empty string, set it to null.
  2. Return the attribute in element’s attribute list whose namespace is namespace and local name is localName, if any, and null otherwise.

To get an attribute value given an element element, localName, and optionally a namespace (null unless stated otherwise), run these steps:

  1. Let attr be the result of getting an attribute given namespace, localName, and element.

  2. If attr is null, then return the empty string.

  3. Return attr’s value.

To set an attribute given an attr and element, run these steps:

  1. If attr’s element is neither null nor element, throw an "InUseAttributeError" DOMException.

  2. Let oldAttr be the result of getting an attribute given attr’s namespace, attr’s local name, and element.

  3. If oldAttr is attr, return attr.

  4. If oldAttr is non-null, then replace oldAttr with attr.

  5. Otherwise, append attr to element.

  6. Return oldAttr.

To set an attribute value for an element element, using a localName and value, and an optional prefix, and namespace, run these steps:

  1. If prefix is not given, set it to null.
  2. If namespace is not given, set it to null.
  3. Let attribute be the result of getting an attribute given namespace, localName, and element.
  4. If attribute is null, create an attribute whose namespace is namespace, namespace prefix is prefix, local name is localName, value is value, and node document is element’s node document, then append this attribute to element, and then return.
  5. Change attribute to value.

To remove an attribute by name given a qualifiedName and element element, run these steps:

  1. Let attr be the result of getting an attribute given qualifiedName and element.

  2. If attr is non-null, then remove attr.

  3. Return attr.

To remove an attribute by namespace and local name given a namespace, localName, and element element, run these steps:

  1. Let attr be the result of getting an attribute given namespace, localName, and element.

  2. If attr is non-null, then remove attr.

  3. Return attr.


An element can have an associated unique identifier (ID)

Historically elements could have multiple identifiers e.g., by using the HTML id attribute and a DTD. This specification makes ID a concept of the DOM and allows for only one per element, given by an id attribute.

Use these attribute change steps to update an element’s ID:

  1. If localName is id, namespace is null, and value is null or the empty string, then unset element’s ID.

  2. Otherwise, if localName is id, namespace is null, then set element’s ID to value.

While this specification defines requirements for class, id, and slot attributes on any element, it makes no claims as to whether using them is conforming or not.


A node’s parent of type Element is known as a parent element. If the node has a parent of a different type, its parent element is null.


namespace = element . namespaceURI
Returns the namespace.
prefix = element . prefix
Returns the namespace prefix.
localName = element . localName
Returns the local name.
qualifiedName = element . tagName
Returns the HTML-uppercased qualified name.

Element/namespaceURI

In all current engines.

Firefox48+Safari10+Chrome31+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)17+IE?
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for Android31+Android WebViewYesSamsung Internet2.0+Opera MobileYes

The namespaceURI attribute’s getter must return this’s namespace.

Element/prefix

In all current engines.

Firefox48+Safari10+Chrome31+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)13+IE?
Firefox for Android48+iOS SafariYesChrome for Android31+Android WebViewYesSamsung Internet2.0+Opera MobileYes

The prefix attribute’s getter must return this’s namespace prefix.

Element/localName

In all current engines.

Firefox48+Safari10+Chrome31+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)17+IE9+
Firefox for Android48+iOS SafariYesChrome for Android31+Android WebViewYesSamsung Internet2.0+Opera MobileYes

The localName attribute’s getter must return this’s local name.

Element/tagName

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari6+Chrome43+
Opera8+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE8+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari6+Chrome for Android43+Android WebView43+Samsung Internet4.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The tagName attribute’s getter must return this’s HTML-uppercased qualified name.


element . id [ = value ]

Returns the value of element’s id content attribute. Can be set to change it.

element . className [ = value ]

Returns the value of element’s class content attribute. Can be set to change it.

element . classList

Allows for manipulation of element’s class content attribute as a set of whitespace-separated tokens through a DOMTokenList object.

element . slot [ = value ]

Returns the value of element’s slot content attribute. Can be set to change it.

IDL attributes that are defined to reflect a content attribute of a given name, must have a getter and setter that follow these steps:

getter

Return the result of running get an attribute value given this and name.

setter

Set an attribute value for this using name and the given value.

Element/id

In all current engines.

FirefoxYesSafari6+Chrome42+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IEYes
Firefox for AndroidYesiOS SafariYesChrome for Android42+Android WebView42+Samsung Internet4.0+Opera MobileYes

The id attribute must reflect the "id" content attribute.

Element/className

In all current engines.

Firefox1+Safari6+Chrome43+
Opera8+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)12+IE8+
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari6+Chrome for Android43+Android WebView43+Samsung Internet4.0+Opera Mobile10.1+

The className attribute must reflect the "class" content attribute.

Element/classList

In all current engines.

Firefox3.6+Safari6+Chrome8+
Opera11.5+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)16+IENone
Firefox for Android4+iOS Safari5+Chrome for Android18+Android WebView37+Samsung Internet1.0+Opera Mobile11.5+

The classList attribute’s getter must return a DOMTokenList object whose associated element is this and whose associated attribute’s local name is class. The token set of this particular DOMTokenList object are also known as the element’s classes.

Element/slot

In all current engines.

Firefox63+Safari10+Chrome53+
OperaYesEdge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIE?
Firefox for Android63+iOS SafariYesChrome for Android53+Android WebView53+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera MobileYes

Global_attributes/slot

In all current engines.

Firefox63+Safari10+Chrome53+
Opera40+Edge79+
Edge (Legacy)NoneIE?
Firefox for Android63+iOS Safari10+Chrome for Android53+Android WebView53+Samsung Internet6.0+Opera Mobile41+

The slot attribute must reflect the "slot" content attribute.

id, class, and slot are effectively superglobal attributes as they can appear on any element, regardless of that element’s namespace.


element . hasAttributes()

Returns true if element has attributes, and false otherwise.

element . getAttributeNames()

Returns the qualified names of all element’s attributes. Can contain duplicates.

element . getAttribute(qualifiedName)

Returns element’s first attribute whose qualified name is qualifiedName, and null if there is no such attribute otherwise.

element . getAttributeNS(namespace, localName)

Returns element’s attribute whose namespace is namespace and local name is localName, and null if there is no such attribute otherwise.

element . setAttribute(qualifiedName, value)

Sets the value of element’s first attribute whose qualified name is qualifiedName to value.

element . setAttributeNS(namespace, localName, value)

Sets the value of element’s attribute whose namespace is namespace and local name is localName to value.

element . removeAttribute(qualifiedName)

Removes element’s first attribute whose qualified name is qualifiedName.

element . removeAttributeNS(namespace, localName)

Removes element’s attribute whose namespace is namespace and local name is localName.

element . toggleAttribute(qualifiedName [, force])

If force is not given, "toggles" qualifiedName, removing it if it is present and adding it if it is not present. If force is true, adds qualifiedName. If force is false, removes qualifiedName.

Returns true if qualifiedName is now present, and false otherwise.

element . hasAttribute(qualifiedName)

Returns true if element has an attribute whose qualified name is qualifiedName, and false otherwise.

element . hasAttributeNS(namespace, localName)

Returns true if element h